BISMUTO

Introducción

Número atómico: 83
Grupo: 15 or V A
Peso atomico: 208.98038
Período: 6
Número CAS: 7440-69-9

Clasificación

chalcogen
halógeno
Gas noble
Lantanoides
Actinoides
Elemento de tierras raras
Platino Metal Group
transuranium
No hay isótopos estables
Sólido
Líquido
Gas
Sólido (Predicho)

Descripción • Usos / Función

In early times bismuth was confused with tin and lead. Claude Geoffroy the Younger showed it to be distinct fromlead in 1753. It is a white crystalline, brittle metal with a pinkish tinge. It occurs native. The most important ores are bismuthinite or bismuth glance(Bi2S3) and bismite (Bi2O3). Peru, Japan, Mexico, Bolivia, and Canada are major bismuth producers. Much of the bismuth produced in the U.S. isobtained as a by-product in refining lead, copper, tin, silver, and gold ores. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals, and the thermal conductivityis lower than any metal, except mercury. It has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall effect of any metal (i.e., greatest increase in electricalresistance when placed in a magnetic field). “Bismanol” is a permanent magnet of high coercive force, made of MnBi, by the U.S. Naval SurfaceWeapons Center. Bismuth expands 3.32% on solidification. This property makes bismuth alloys particularly suited to the making of sharp castingsof objects subject to damage by high temperatures. With other metals such as tin, cadmium, etc., bismuth forms low-melting alloys which areextensively used for safety devices in fire detection and extinguishing systems. Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is finding use as acatalyst for making acrylic fibers. When bismuth is heated in air it burns with a blue flame, forming yellow fumes of the oxide. The metal is also usedas a thermocouple material, and has found application as a carrier for U235 or U233 fuel in atomic reactors. Its soluble salts are characterized by forminginsoluble basic salts on the addition of water, a property sometimes used in detection work. Bismuth oxychloride is used extensively in cosmetics.Bismuth subnitrate and subcarbonate are used in medicine. Natural bismuth contains only one isotope 209Bi. Forty one isotopes and isomers of bismuthare known. Bismuth metal costs about $90/kg (99.999%). 1

Propiedades físicas

Punto de fusion:2*  271.40 °C = 544.55 K = 520.52 °F
Punto de ebullición:2* 1564 °C = 1837.15 K = 2847.2 °F
Punto de sublimación:2 
Triple punto:2 
Punto crítico:2 
Densidad:3  9.79 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuración electronica

Configuración electronica: [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p3
Bloquear: p
Ocupado más alto nivel de energía: 6
Electrones de valencia: 5

Números cuánticos:

n = 6
ℓ = 1
m = 1
ms = +½

Vinculación

electronegatividad (escala de Pauling):4 1.9
Electropositivity (escala de Pauling): 2.1
Afinidad electronica:5 0.946 eV
estados de oxidación: +3,5
Función del trabajo:6 4.36 eV = 6.98472E-19 J

potencial de ionización   eV 7  kJ/mol  
1 7.2856    703.0
2 16.69    1610.3
potencial de ionización   eV 7  kJ/mol  
3 25.56    2466.2
4 45.3    4370.8
potencial de ionización   eV 7  kJ/mol  
5 56    5403.2
6 88.3    8519.7

termoquímica

Calor especifico: 0.122 J/g°C 8 = 25.496 J/mol°C = 0.029 cal/g°C = 6.094 cal/mol°C
Conductividad térmica: 7.87 (W/m)/K, 27°C 9
Calor de fusión: 11.3 kJ/mol 10 = 54.1 J/g
Calor de vaporización: 104.8 kJ/mol 11 = 501.5 J/g
Estado de la materia Entalpía de formación (ΔHf°)12 entropía (S°)12 Energía libre de Gibbs (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 13.56 56.73504 0 0
(g) 49.5 207.108 44.67 186.89928 40.2 168.1968

isótopos

nucleido Masa 13 Media vida 13 spin nuclear 13 Energía de unión
184Bi 184.00112(14)# 6.6(15) ms 3+# 1,420.19 MeV
185Bi 184.99763(6)# 2# ms 9/2-# 1,437.57 MeV
186Bi 185.99660(8) 14.8(7) ms (3+) 1,445.64 MeV
187Bi 186.993158(16) 32(3) ms 9/2-# 1,453.71 MeV
188Bi 187.99227(5) 44(3) ms 3+# 1,461.79 MeV
189Bi 188.98920(6) 674(11) ms (9/2-) 1,479.17 MeV
190Bi 189.9883(2) 6.3(1) s (3+) 1,487.24 MeV
191Bi 190.985786(8) 12.3(3) s (9/2-) 1,495.31 MeV
192Bi 191.98546(4) 34.6(9) s (3+) 1,503.39 MeV
193Bi 192.98296(1) 67(3) s (9/2-) 1,511.46 MeV
194Bi 193.98283(5) 95(3) s (3+) 1,519.53 MeV
195Bi 194.980651(6) 183(4) s (9/2-) 1,527.60 MeV
196Bi 195.980667(26) 5.1(2) min (3+) 1,535.67 MeV
197Bi 196.978864(9) 9.33(50) min (9/2-) 1,553.06 MeV
198Bi 197.97921(3) 10.3(3) min (2+,3+) 1,561.13 MeV
199Bi 198.977672(13) 27(1) min 9/2- 1,569.20 MeV
200Bi 199.978132(26) 36.4(5) min 7+ 1,577.27 MeV
201Bi 200.977009(16) 108(3) min 9/2- 1,585.34 MeV
202Bi 201.977742(22) 1.72(5) h 5(+#) 1,593.41 MeV
203Bi 202.976876(23) 11.76(5) h 9/2- 1,601.49 MeV
204Bi 203.977813(28) 11.22(10) h 6+ 1,609.56 MeV
205Bi 204.977389(8) 15.31(4) d 9/2- 1,617.63 MeV
206Bi 205.978499(8) 6.243(3) d 6(+) 1,625.70 MeV
207Bi 206.9784707(26) 32.9(14) a 9/2- 1,633.77 MeV
208Bi 207.9797422(25) 3.68(4)E+5 a (5)+ 1,641.84 MeV
209Bi 208.9803987(16) 1.9(2)E+19 a 9/2- 1,640.60 MeV
210Bi 209.9841204(16) 5.012(5) d 1- 1,648.67 MeV
211Bi 210.987269(6) 2.14(2) min 9/2- 1,656.74 MeV
212Bi 211.9912857(21) 60.55(6) min 1(-) 1,655.50 MeV
213Bi 212.994385(5) 45.59(6) min 9/2- 1,663.57 MeV
214Bi 213.998712(12) 19.9(4) min 1- 1,671.64 MeV
215Bi 215.001770(16) 7.6(2) min (9/2-) 1,670.40 MeV
216Bi 216.006306(12) 2.17(5) min 1-# 1,678.47 MeV
217Bi 217.00947(21)# 98.5(8) s 9/2-# 1,686.54 MeV
218Bi 218.01432(39)# 33(1) s 1-# 1,685.30 MeV
Los valores marcados con # no son puramente derivan de los datos experimentales, pero al menos en parte, de las tendencias sistemáticas. Hace girar con débiles argumentos de asignación se incluyen entre paréntesis. 13

reacciones

Abundancia

Tierra - Los compuestos de origen: sulfides 15
Tierra - Agua de mar: 0.00002 mg/L 16
Tierra -  Corteza:  0.0085 mg/kg = 0.00000085% 16
Tierra -  Total:  2.94 ppb 17
Planeta mercurio) -  Total:  0.034 ppb 17
Venus -  Total:  3.08 ppb 17
condritas - Total: 0.002 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 18

Compuestos

Precios





Información de seguridad


Ficha de datos de seguridad de materiales - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Para más información

Enlaces externos:

Fuentes

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:5-4:6.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(4) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA, 2006; p 128.
(15) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(16) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(17) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(18) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.