FLUORINE

Introduction

Atomic Number: 9
Group: 17 or VII A
Atomic Weight: 18.9984032
Period: 2
CAS Number: 7782-41-4

Classification

Chalcogen
Halogen
Noble Gas
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Rare Earth Element
Platinum Group Metal
Transuranium
No Stable Isotopes
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Solid (Predicted)

Description • Uses/Function

In 1529, Georigius Agricola described the use of fluorspar as a flux, and as early as 1670 Schwandhard found that glass was etched when exposed to fluorspar treated with acid. Scheele and many later investigators, including Davy, Gay-Lussac, Lavoisier, and Thenard, experimented with hydrofluoric acid, some experiments ending in tragedy. The element was finally isolated in 1886 by Moisson after nearly 74 years of continuous effort. Fluorine occurs chiefly in fluorspar (CaF2) and cryolite (Na2AlF6), but is rather widely distributed in other minerals. It is a member of the halogen family of elements, and is obtained by electrolyzing a solution of potassium hydrogen fluoride in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride in a vessel of metal or transparent fluorspar. Modern commercial production methods are essentially variations on the procedures first used by Moisson. Fluorine is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements. It is a pale yellow, corrosive gas, which reacts with practically all organic and inorganic substances. Finely divided metals, glass, ceramics, carbon, and even water burn in fluorine with a bright flame.Until World War II, there was no commercial production of elemental fluorine. The atom bomb project and nuclear energy applications, however, made it necessary to produce large quantities. Safe handling techniques have now been developed and it is possible at present to transport liquid fluorine by the ton. Fluorine and its compounds are used in producing uranium (from the hexafluoride) and more than 100 commercial fluorochemicals,including many well-known high-temperature plastics. Hydrofluoric acid is extensively used for etching the glass of light bulbs, etc. Fluorochlorohydrocarbons are extensively used in air conditioning and refrigeration. It has been suggested that fluorine can be substituted for hydrogen wherever it occurs in organic compounds, which could lead to an astronomical number of new fluorine compounds. The presence of fluorine as a soluble fluoride in drinking water to the extent of 2 ppm may cause mottled enamel in teeth, when used by children acquiring permanent teeth; in smaller amounts,however, fluorides are said to be beneficial and used in water supplies to prevent dental cavities. Elemental fluorine has been studied as a rocket propellant as it has an exceptionally high specific impulse value. Compounds of fluorine with rare gases have now been confirmed. Fluorides of xenon,radon, and krypton are among those known. Elemental fluorine and the fluoride ion are highly toxic. The free element has a characteristic pungent odor, detectable in concentrations as low as 20 ppb, which is below the safe working level. The recommended maximum allowable concentration for a daily 8-hour time-weighted exposure is 1 ppm. Fluorine is known to have thirteen isotopes. 1

• "Besides its use in making atomic bombs, it is also an important element in lubricating oils especially designed for stability at all temperatures. It is also used with chlorine and other elements to form a group of compounds, often used in household refrigerators, called freons from the trade name 'Freon.'" 2
• "considered to be valuable for human health, because of its benefits to the teeth and skeleton." 3

Physical Properties

Density:4  1.553 g/L

* - at 1 atm

Electron Configuration

Electron Configuration: [He] 2s2 2p5
Block: p
Highest Occupied Energy Level: 2
Valence Electrons: 7

Quantum Numbers:

n = 2
ℓ = 1
m = 0
ms = -½

Bonding

Electronegativity (Pauling scale):5 3.98
Electropositivity (Pauling scale): 0.02
Electron Affinity:6 3.401189 eV
Oxidation States: -1

Ionization Potential   eV 7  kJ/mol  
1 17.42282    1681.0
2 34.97082    3374.2
3 62.7084    6050.4
Ionization Potential   eV 7  kJ/mol  
4 87.1398    8407.7
5 114.2428    11022.8
6 157.1651    15164.1
Ionization Potential   eV 7  kJ/mol  
7 185.186    17867.7
8 953.9112    92038.4
9 1103.1176    106434.6

Thermochemistry

Specific Heat: 0.824 J/g°C 8 = 15.655 J/mol°C = 0.197 cal/g°C = 3.742 cal/mol°C
Thermal Conductivity: 0.0279 (W/m)/K, 27°C 9
Heat of Fusion: 0.2552 kJ/mol 10 = 13.4 J/g
Heat of Vaporization: 3.2698 kJ/mol 11 = 172.1 J/g
State of Matter Enthalpy of Formation (ΔHf°)12 Entropy (S°)12 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(g) 0 0 48.45 202.7148 0 0

Isotopes

Nuclide Mass 13 Half-Life 13 Nuclear Spin 13 Binding Energy
14F 14.03506(43)# 2-# 73.35 MeV
15F 15.01801(14) 410(60)E-24 s [1.0(2) MeV] (1/2+) 97.26 MeV
16F 16.011466(9) 11(6)E-21 s [40(20) keV] 0- 111.85 MeV
17F 17.00209524(27) 64.49(16) s 5/2+ 128.31 MeV
18F 18.0009380(6) 109.771(20) min 1+ 138.24 MeV
19F 18.99840322(7) STABLE 1/2+ 148.18 MeV
20F 19.99998132(8) 11.163(8) s 2+ 155.32 MeV
21F 20.9999490(19) 4.158(20) s 5/2+ 163.39 MeV
22F 22.002999(13) 4.23(4) s 4+,(3+) 168.66 MeV
23F 23.00357(9) 2.23(14) s (3/2,5/2)+ 175.80 MeV
24F 24.00812(8) 400(50) ms (1,2,3)+ 179.22 MeV
25F 25.01210(11) 50(6) ms (5/2+)# 183.56 MeV
26F 26.01962(18) 9.6(8) ms 1+ 185.11 MeV
27F 27.02676(40) 4.9(2) ms 5/2+# 186.67 MeV
28F 28.03567(55)# <40 ns 186.35 MeV
29F 29.04326(62)# 2.6(3) ms 5/2+# 186.97 MeV
30F 30.05250(64)# <260 ns 186.66 MeV
31F 31.06043(64)# 1# ms [>260 ns] 5/2+# 187.28 MeV
Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses. 13

Reactions

Abundance

Earth - Source Compounds: halide salts or brines 17
Earth - Seawater: 1.3 mg/L 18
Earth -  Crust:  585 mg/kg = 0.0585% 18
Earth -  Total:  13.5 ppm 19
Mercury -  Total:  2.2 ppm 19
Venus -  Total:  15 ppm 19
Chondrites - Total: ~700 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 20
Human Body - Total: 0.0033% 21

Compounds

4-nitrobenzotrifluoride
aluminum fluoride trihydrate; aluminium fluoride trihydrate
aluminum fluoride; aluminium fluoride
ammonium fluoride
antimony dichlorotrifluoride
antimony pentafluoride
antimony trifluoride
arsenic pentafluoride
arsenic trifluoride
barium fluoride
berkelium(III) fluoride
berkelium(IV) fluoride
beryllium fluoride
bismuth(III) fluoride; bismuth trifluoride
bismuth(V) fluoride
boron trifluoride
bromine monofluoride
bromine pentafluoride
bromine trifluoride
cadmium fluoride
calcium fluoride
californium(III) fluoride
californium(IV) fluoride
carbon tetrafluoride
cerium(II) fluoride
cerium(III) fluoride
cerium(IV) fluoride
cesium fluoride; caesium fluoride
chlorine monofluoride
chlorine pentafluoride
chlorine trifluoride
chromium(II) fluoride; chromous fluoride
chromium(III) fluoride
chromium(IV) fluoride
chromium(V) fluoride
cobalt(II) fluoride; cobalt difluoride
cobalt(III) fluoride
cobalt(IV) fluoride
copper(I) fluoride
copper(II) fluoride
curium(III) fluoride
curium(IV) fluoride
diboron tetrafluoride
dinitrogen difluoride
dinitrogen tetrafluoride; tetrafluorohydrazine; 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorohydrazine
dioxygen difluoride
disulfur decafluoride
disulfur tetrafluoride
dysprosium(III) fluoride
einsteinium(III) fluoride
erbium(III) fluoride
europium(II) fluoride
europium(III) fluoride
fluorine nitrate
fluorine perchlorate
gadolinium(III) fluoride
gallium(III) fluoride
gallium(III) fluoride trihydrate
germanium(II) fluoride
germanium(IV) fluoride
gold(III) fluoride
gold(V) fluoride
hafnium fluoride
holmium fluoride
hydrofluoric acid; hydrogen fluoride
indium(I) fluoride
indium(III) fluoride
indium(III) fluoride trihydrate
iodine heptafluoride
iodine monofluoride
iodine pentafluoride
iodine(III) fluoride
iridium(III) fluoride
iridium(IV) fluoride
iridium(V) fluoride
iridium(VI) fluoride
iron(II) fluoride tetrahydrate
iron(II) fluoride; ferrous fluoride
iron(III) fluoride
iron(III) fluoride trihydrate
krypton difluoride
lanthanum fluoride
lead(II) fluoride; lead difluoride
lead(IV) fluoride
lithium fluoride
lutetium fluoride
magnesium fluoride
manganese(II) fluoride
manganese(III) fluoride
manganese(IV) fluoride
mercury(I) fluoride
mercury(II) fluoride
methyl fluoride; fluoromethane*
m-nitrobenzotrifluoride
molybdenum(III) fluoride
molybdenum(IV) fluoride
molybdenum(V) fluoride
molybdenum(VI) fluoride
neodymium(III) fluoride; neodymium trifluoride
neptunium(III) fluoride
neptunium(IV) fluoride
neptunium(V) fluoride
neptunium(VI) fluoride
nickel(II) fluoride
niobium(III) fluoride
niobium(IV) fluoride
niobium(V) fluoride
nitrogen trifluoride
osmium(IV) fluoride
osmium(V) fluoride
osmium(VI) fluoride
osmium(VII) fluoride
osmium(VIII) fluoride
oxygen difluoride; oxygen(II) fluoride
palladium(II) fluoride
palladium(IV) fluoride
phosphorus pentafluoride
phosphorus tetrafluoride
phosphorus trifluoride
platinum(IV) fluoride
platinum(V) fluoride
platinum(VI) fluoride
plutonium(III) fluoride
plutonium(IV) fluoride
plutonium(VI) fluoride
potassium aluminium fluoride; potassium tetrafluoridoaluminate; potassium tetrafluoroaluminate
potassium bifluoride
potassium fluoride
praseodymium(II) fluoride
praseodymium(III) fluoride
praseodymium(IV) fluoride
protactinium(IV) fluoride
protactinium(V) fluoride
radium fluoride
rhenium(IV) fluoride
rhenium(V) fluoride
rhenium(VI) fluoride
rhenium(VII) fluoride
rhodium(III) fluoride
rhodium(IV) fluoride
rhodium(V) fluoride
rhodium(VI) fluoride
rubidium fluoride
ruthenium(III) fluoride
ruthenium(IV) fluoride
ruthenium(V) fluoride
ruthenium(VI) fluoride
samarium(II) fluoride
samarium(III) fluoride
scandium(III) fluoride
selenium difluoride
selenium dioxydifluoride
selenium hexafluoride
selenium tetrafluoride
silicon tetrafluoride
silver fluoride
silver subfluoride
sodium bifluoride
sodium borofluoride
sodium fluoride
strontium fluoride
sulfur difluoride
sulfur hexafluoride
sulfur tetrafluoride
tantalum(III) fluoride
tantalum(V) fluoride
technetium(V) fluoride
technetium(VI) fluoride
tellurium hexafluoride
tellurium tetrafluoride
terbium(II) fluoride
terbium(III) fluoride
terbium(IV) fluoride
thallium(I) fluoride
thallium(III) fluoride
thorium(III) fluoride
thorium(IV) fluoride
thulium(III) fluoride
tin(II) fluoride
tin(IV) fluoride
titanium(II) fluoride
titanium(III) fluoride; titanium trifluoride
titanium(IV) fluoride
tungsten(IV) fluoride
tungsten(V) fluoride
tungsten(VI) fluoride
tungsten(VI) oxytetrafluoride
uranium(III) fluoride
uranium(IV) fluoride
uranium(V) fluoride
uranium(VI) fluoride; uranium hexafluoride
vanadium(II) fluoride
vanadium(III) fluoride
vanadium(IV) fluoride
vanadium(V) fluoride; vanadium pentafluoride
vanadium(V) oxytrifluoride
xenon difluoride
xenon dioxydifluoride
xenon hexafluoride
xenon monofluoride
xenon oxytetrafluoride
xenon tetrafluoride
ytterbium(II) fluoride
ytterbium(III) fluoride
yttrium(III) fluoride
zinc fluoride
zinc silicofluoride
zirconium(IV) fluoride

Safety Information


Material Safety Data Sheet - ACI Alloys, Inc.

For More Information

External Links:

Sources

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:12.
(2) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; pp 152-153.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 925.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - T < 6959.03229487619
(15) - T > 22039.5821880153
(16) - T < 2722.86959968292
(17) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(18) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(19) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(20) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(21) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.