ERBIUM

Introduction

Atomic Number: 68
Group: None
Atomic Weight: 167.259
Period: 6
CAS Number: 7440-52-0

Classification

Chalcogen
Halogen
Noble Gas
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Rare Earth Element
Platinum Group Metal
Transuranium
No Stable Isotopes
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Solid (Predicted)

Description • Uses/Function

Erbium, oneof the so-called rare-earth elements of the lanthanide series, is found in the minerals mentioned under dysprosium above. In 1842 Mosander separated“yttria,” found in the mineral gadolinite, into three fractions which he called yttria, erbia, and terbia. The names erbia and terbia became confusedin this early period. After 1860, Mosander’s terbia was known as erbia, and after 1877, the earlier known erbia became terbia. The erbia of this periodwas later shown to consist of five oxides, now known as erbia, scandia, holmia, thulia and ytterbia. By 1905 Urbain and James independently succeededin isolating fairly pure Er2O3. Klemm and Bommer first produced reasonably pure erbium metal in 1934 by reducing the anhydrous chloride withpotassium vapor. The pure metal is soft and malleable and has a bright, silvery, metallic luster. As with other rare-earth metals, its properties dependto a certain extent on the impurities present. The metal is fairly stable in air and does not oxidize as rapidly as some of the other rare-earth metals.Naturally occurring erbium is a mixture of six isotopes, all of which are stable. Twenty four radioactive isotopes of erbium are also recognized. Recentproduction techniques, using ion-exchange reactions, have resulted in much lower prices of the rare-earth metals and their compounds in recent years.The cost of 99.9% erbium metal is about $4/g. Erbium is finding nuclear and metallurgical uses. Added to vanadium, for example, erbium lowersthe hardness and improves workability. Most of the rare-earth oxides have sharp absorption bands in the visible, ultraviolet, and near infrared. Thisproperty, associated with the electronic structure, gives beautiful pastel colors to many of the rare-earth salts. Erbium oxide gives a pink color and hasbeen used as a colorant in glasses and porcelain enamel glazes. 1

• "tint[s] sunglasses." 2
• "is in optical fibers." 3

Physical Properties

Melting Point:4*  1529 °C = 1802.15 K = 2784.2 °F
Boiling Point:4* 2868 °C = 3141.15 K = 5194.4 °F
Sublimation Point:4 
Triple Point:4 
Critical Point:4 
Density:5  9.07 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Electron Configuration

Electron Configuration:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f12
Block: f
Highest Occupied Energy Level: 6
Valence Electrons: 2

Quantum Numbers:

n = 4
ℓ = 3
m = 1
ms = -½

Bonding

Electronegativity (Pauling scale):6 1.24
Electropositivity (Pauling scale): 2.76

Ionization Potential   eV 7  kJ/mol  
1 6.1077    589.3
Ionization Potential   eV 7  kJ/mol  
2 11.93    1151.1
Ionization Potential   eV 7  kJ/mol  
3 22.74    2194.1
4 42.7    4119.9

Thermochemistry

Specific Heat: 0.168 J/g°C 8 = 28.100 J/mol°C = 0.040 cal/g°C = 6.716 cal/mol°C
Thermal Conductivity: 14.3 (W/m)/K, 27°C 9
Heat of Fusion: 19.9 kJ/mol 10 = 119.0 J/g
Heat of Vaporization: 261 kJ/mol 11 = 1560.5 J/g
State of Matter Enthalpy of Formation (ΔHf°)12 Entropy (S°)12 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 17.49 73.17816 0 0
(g) 75.8 317.1472 46.72 195.47648 67.2 281.1648

Isotopes

Nuclide Mass 13 Half-Life 13 Nuclear Spin 13 Binding Energy
143Er 142.96634(64)# 200# ms 9/2-# 1,138.26 MeV
144Er 143.96038(43)# 400# ms [>200 ns] 0+ 1,146.33 MeV
145Er 144.95739(43)# 900(300) ms 1/2+# 1,163.71 MeV
146Er 145.95200(32)# 1.7(6) s 0+ 1,171.79 MeV
147Er 146.94949(32)# ~2.5 s (1/2+) 1,189.17 MeV
148Er 147.94455(21)# 4.6(2) s 0+ 1,197.24 MeV
149Er 148.94231(3) 4(2) s (1/2+) 1,205.31 MeV
150Er 149.937914(18) 18.5(7) s 0+ 1,222.70 MeV
151Er 150.937449(18) 23.5(13) s (7/2-) 1,230.77 MeV
152Er 151.935050(11) 10.3(1) s 0+ 1,238.84 MeV
153Er 152.935063(9) 37.1(2) s 7/2(-) 1,246.91 MeV
154Er 153.932783(6) 3.73(9) min 0+ 1,254.99 MeV
155Er 154.933209(7) 5.3(3) min 7/2- 1,263.06 MeV
156Er 155.931065(26) 19.5(10) min 0+ 1,271.13 MeV
157Er 156.93192(3) 18.65(10) min 3/2- 1,279.20 MeV
158Er 157.929893(27) 2.29(6) h 0+ 1,296.59 MeV
159Er 158.930684(5) 36(1) min 3/2- 1,295.34 MeV
160Er 159.929083(26) 28.58(9) h 0+ 1,312.73 MeV
161Er 160.929995(10) 3.21(3) h 3/2- 1,320.80 MeV
162Er 161.928778(4) STABLE 0+ 1,328.87 MeV
163Er 162.930033(6) 75.0(4) min 5/2- 1,327.63 MeV
164Er 163.929200(3) STABLE 0+ 1,345.01 MeV
165Er 164.930726(3) 10.36(4) h 5/2- 1,343.77 MeV
166Er 165.9302931(27) STABLE 0+ 1,351.84 MeV
167Er 166.9320482(27) STABLE 7/2+ 1,359.91 MeV
168Er 167.9323702(27) STABLE 0+ 1,367.98 MeV
169Er 168.9345904(27) 9.392(18) d 1/2- 1,376.06 MeV
170Er 169.9354643(30) STABLE 0+ 1,384.13 MeV
171Er 170.9380298(30) 7.516(2) h 5/2- 1,392.20 MeV
172Er 171.939356(5) 49.3(3) h 0+ 1,400.27 MeV
173Er 172.94240(21)# 1.434(17) min (7/2-) 1,399.03 MeV
174Er 173.94423(32)# 3.2(2) min 0+ 1,407.10 MeV
175Er 174.94777(43)# 1.2(3) min (9/2+) 1,415.17 MeV
176Er 175.95008(43)# 20# s 0+ 1,413.93 MeV
177Er 176.95405(54)# 3# s 1/2-# 1,422.00 MeV
Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses. 13

Abundance

Earth - Source Compounds: phosphates 14
Earth - Seawater: 0.00000087 mg/L 15
Earth -  Crust:  3.5 mg/kg = 0.00035% 15
Earth -  Total:  231 ppb 16
Mercury -  Total:  177 ppb 16
Venus -  Total:  242 ppb 16
Chondrites - Total: 0.23 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

Compounds

Safety Information


Material Safety Data Sheet - ACI Alloys, Inc.

For More Information

External Links:

Magazines:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

Sources

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:11.
(2) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 140.
(3) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 143.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.