COPPER

Introduction

Atomic Number: 29
Group: 11 or I B
Atomic Weight: 63.546
Period: 4
CAS Number: 7440-50-8

Classification

Chalcogen
Halogen
Noble Gas
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Rare Earth Element
Platinum Group Metal
Transuranium
No Stable Isotopes
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Solid (Predicted)

Description • Uses/Function

The discovery of copper dates from prehistoric times. It is said to have been mined for more than 5000 years. It is one of man’s most importantmetals. Copper is reddish colored, takes on a bright metallic luster, and is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity (second onlyto silver in electrical conductivity). The electrical industry is one of the greatest users of copper. Copper occasionally occurs native, and is found inmany minerals such as cuprite, malachite, azurite, chalcopyrite, and bornite. Large copper ore deposits are found in the U.S., Chile, Zambia, Zaire,Peru, and Canada. The most important copper ores are the sulfides, oxides, and carbonates. From these, copper is obtained by smelting, leaching, andby electrolysis. Its alloys, brass and bronze, long used, are still very important; all American coins are now copper alloys; monel and gun metals alsocontain copper. The most important compounds are the oxide and the sulfate, blue vitriol; the latter has wide use as an agricultural poison and as analgicide in water purification. Copper compounds such as Fehling’s solution are widely used in analytical chemistry in tests for sugar. High-puritycopper (99.999 + %) is available commercially. Natural copper contains two isotopes. Twenty five other radioactive isotopes and isomers are known. 1

• "Copper is so widely used, especially in its alloys such as bronze (Cu and Sn) and brass (Cu and Zn), that it is becoming very scarce...The increased use of fiber optics in place of copper in communications cables may help to lessen the demand for this metal. The use of superconducting materials in electricity transmission lines could eventually provide enormous savings." 2
• "hemoglobin, bone, nerves, vascular system...needed for the absorption and mobilization of iron, so a deficiency of copper causes a type of anemia that is difficult to distinguish from iron deficiency anemia. Copper is also needed for the cardiovascular system, bone, brain, and nervous system. Premature and malnourished infants are particularly susceptible to developing copper deficiency, in part because milk is a poor source of copper." 3
• "One of the many important uses of copper is to make wire for electric transmission. For this it must be practically pure, as even very small amounts of impurity lower the conductivity. If the conductivity of pure copper is considered as 100, copper containing 0.8 per cent of arsenic has a conductivity of only 30, and copper containing 0.5 per cent of silicon has a conductivity of 28. The electrolytic refining of copper furnishes metal pure enough for most electrical work. Sheet copper is used extensively for roofing, linings, and ornamental work. The copper sheeting in the Statue of Liberty is estimated to weigh about 20,000 pounds. Copper is also an important constituent of the bronzes and brasses." 4

Physical Properties

Melting Point:5*  1084.62 °C = 1357.77 K = 1984.316 °F
Boiling Point:5* 2562 °C = 2835.15 K = 4643.6 °F
Sublimation Point:5 
Triple Point:5 
Critical Point:5 
Density:6  8.96 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Electron Configuration

Electron Configuration:  *[Ar] 4s1 3d10
Block: d
Highest Occupied Energy Level: 4
Valence Electrons: 

Quantum Numbers:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 2
ms = -½

Bonding

Electronegativity (Pauling scale):7 1.90
Electropositivity (Pauling scale): 2.1
Electron Affinity:8 1.235 eV
Oxidation States: +2,1
Work Function:9 4.70 eV = 7.5294E-19 J

Ionization Potential   eV 10  kJ/mol  
1 7.72638    745.5
2 20.2924    1957.9
3 36.841    3554.6
4 57.38    5536.3
5 79.8    7699.5
6 103    9938.0
7 139    13411.5
8 166    16016.6
9 199    19200.6
Ionization Potential   eV 10  kJ/mol  
10 232    22384.6
11 265.3    25597.6
12 369    35603.1
13 401    38690.6
14 435    41971.1
15 484    46698.9
16 520    50172.4
17 557    53742.3
18 633    61075.2
19 670.588    64701.9
Ionization Potential   eV 10  kJ/mol  
20 1697    163735.6
21 1804    174059.5
22 1916    184865.9
23 2060    198759.7
24 2182    210530.9
25 2308    222688.1
26 2478    239090.6
27 2587.5    249655.7
28 11062.38    1067357.2
29 11567.617    1116105.1

Thermochemistry

Specific Heat: 0.385 J/g°C 11 = 24.465 J/mol°C = 0.092 cal/g°C = 5.847 cal/mol°C
Thermal Conductivity: 401 (W/m)/K, 27°C 12
Heat of Fusion: 13.05 kJ/mol 13 = 205.4 J/g
Heat of Vaporization: 300.3 kJ/mol 14 = 4725.7 J/g
State of Matter Enthalpy of Formation (ΔHf°)15 Entropy (S°)15 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGf°)15
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.923 33.149832 0 0
(g) 80.86 338.31824 39.74 166.27216 71.37 298.61208

Isotopes

Nuclide Mass 16 Half-Life 16 Nuclear Spin 16 Binding Energy
52Cu 51.99718(28)# (3+)# 399.81 MeV
53Cu 52.98555(28)# <300 ns (3/2-)# 419.06 MeV
54Cu 53.97671(23)# <75 ns (3+)# 435.52 MeV
55Cu 54.96605(32)# 40# ms [>200 ns] 3/2-# 452.90 MeV
56Cu 55.95856(15)# 93(3) ms (4+) 468.43 MeV
57Cu 56.949211(17) 196.3(7) ms 3/2- 484.88 MeV
58Cu 57.9445385(17) 3.204(7) s 1+ 497.61 MeV
59Cu 58.9394980(8) 81.5(5) s 3/2- 510.34 MeV
60Cu 59.9373650(18) 23.7(4) min 2+ 520.27 MeV
61Cu 60.9334578(11) 3.333(5) h 3/2- 532.07 MeV
62Cu 61.932584(4) 9.673(8) min 1+ 541.07 MeV
63Cu 62.9295975(6) STABLE 3/2- 551.94 MeV
64Cu 63.9297642(6) 12.700(2) h 1+ 560.01 MeV
65Cu 64.9277895(7) STABLE 3/2- 569.95 MeV
66Cu 65.9288688(7) 5.120(14) min 1+ 577.09 MeV
67Cu 66.9277303(13) 61.83(12) h 3/2- 586.09 MeV
68Cu 67.9296109(17) 31.1(15) s 1+ 592.30 MeV
69Cu 68.9294293(15) 2.85(15) min 3/2- 600.37 MeV
70Cu 69.9323923(17) 44.5(2) s (6-) 605.64 MeV
71Cu 70.9326768(16) 19.4(14) s (3/2-) 613.72 MeV
72Cu 71.9358203(15) 6.6(1) s (1+) 618.99 MeV
73Cu 72.936675(4) 4.2(3) s (3/2-) 626.13 MeV
74Cu 73.939875(7) 1.594(10) s (1+,3+) 631.41 MeV
75Cu 74.94190(105) 1.224(3) s (3/2-)# 637.62 MeV
76Cu 75.945275(7) 641(6) ms (3,5) 641.96 MeV
77Cu 76.94785(43)# 469(8) ms 3/2-# 648.17 MeV
78Cu 77.95196(43)# 342(11) ms 652.52 MeV
79Cu 78.95456(54)# 188(25) ms 3/2-# 657.79 MeV
80Cu 79.96087(64)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 660.28 MeV
Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses. 16

Reactions

Abundance

Earth - Source Compounds: sulfides 30
Earth - Seawater: 0.00025 mg/L 31
Earth -  Crust:  60 mg/kg = 0.006% 31
Earth -  Lithosphere:  0.007% 32
Earth -  Total:  31 ppm 33
Mercury -  Total:  5.1 ppm 33
Venus -  Total:  35 ppm 33
Chondrites - Total: 250 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 34
Human Body - Total: 0.0001% 35

Compounds

Prices





Safety Information


Material Safety Data Sheet - ACI Alloys, Inc.

For More Information

External Links:

Magazines:
(1) Bower, Bruce. David, Solomon May Have Been Kings of Copper. Science News, November 22, 2008, pp 10.
(2) Moyer, Michael. How Much is Left?. Scientific American, September 2010, pp 74-81.

Sources

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:9.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 912.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 926-7.
(4) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 537.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(7) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(9) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(15) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(16) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(17) - T > 758.536711746723
(18) - T < 4162.83074477597
(19) - T > -18104.2471042471
(20) - T > -35844.9848024312
(21) - T < 18832.7556325824
(22) - T > -417.235359466751
(23) - T < 1011.17473538088
(24) - T < 4779.19254658385
(25) - T < 13978.9639758086
(26) - T < 1136.57834101382
(27) - T > -384.016289132095
(28) - T < 1824.00191823522
(29) - T < 10412.8571428571
(30) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(31) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(32) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(33) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(34) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
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