BROMINE

Introduction

Atomic Number: 35
Group: 17 or VII A
Atomic Weight: 79.904
Period: 4
CAS Number: 7726-95-6

Classification

Chalcogen
Halogen
Noble Gas
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Rare Earth Element
Platinum Group Metal
Transuranium
No Stable Isotopes
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Solid (Predicted)

Description • Uses/Function

Discovered by Balard in 1826, but not prepared in quantity until 1860. A member of the halogen group of elements, it is obtained fromnatural brines from wells in Michigan and Arkansas. Little bromine is extracted today from seawater, which contains only about 85 ppm. Bromineis the only liquid nonmetallic element. It is a heavy, mobile, reddish-brown liquid, volatilizing readily at room temperature to a red vapor with a strongdisagreeable odor, resembling chlorine, and having a very irritating effect on the eyes and throat; it is readily soluble in water or carbon disulfide,forming a red solution, is less active than chlorine but more so than iodine; it unites readily with many elements and has a bleaching action; when spilledon the skin it produces painful sores. It presents a serious health hazard, and maximum safety precautions should be taken when handling it. Muchof the bromine output in the U.S. was used in the production of ethylene dibromide, a lead scavenger used in making gasoline antiknock compounds.Lead in gasoline, however, has been drastically reduced, due to environmental considerations. This will greatly affect future production of bromine.Bromine is also used in making fumigants, flameproofing agents, water purification compounds, dyes, medicinals, sanitizers, inorganic bromides forphotography, etc. Organic bromides are also important. Natural bromine is made of two isotopes, bromine-79 and bromine-81. Thirty three isotopes and isomers areknown. Bromine costs about $100/kg. 1

Physical Properties

Density:2  3.1028 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Electron Configuration

Electron Configuration: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5
Block: p
Highest Occupied Energy Level: 4
Valence Electrons: 7

Quantum Numbers:

n = 4
ℓ = 1
m = 0
ms = -½

Bonding

Electronegativity (Pauling scale):3 2.96
Electropositivity (Pauling scale): 1.04
Electron Affinity:4 3.363588 eV
Oxidation States: ±1,+5

Ionization Potential   eV 5  kJ/mol  
1 11.81381    1139.9
2 21.8    2103.4
Ionization Potential   eV 5  kJ/mol  
3 36    3473.5
4 47.3    4563.8
5 59.7    5760.2
Ionization Potential   eV 5  kJ/mol  
6 88.6    8548.6
7 103    9938.0
8 192.8    18602.4

Thermochemistry

Specific Heat: 0.226 J/g°C 6 = 18.058 J/mol°C = 0.054 cal/g°C = 4.316 cal/mol°C
Thermal Conductivity: 0.122 (W/m)/K, 27°C 7
Heat of Fusion: 5.286 kJ/mol 8 = 66.2 J/g
Heat of Vaporization: 15.438 kJ/mol 9 = 193.2 J/g
State of Matter Enthalpy of Formation (ΔHf°)10 Entropy (S°)10 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGf°)10
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(ℓ) 0 0 36.384 152.230656 0 0
(g) 7.387 30.907208 58.641 245.353944 0.751 3.142184

Isotopes

Nuclide Mass 11 Half-Life 11 Nuclear Spin 11 Binding Energy
67Br 66.96479(54)# 1/2-# 546.93 MeV
68Br 67.95852(38)# <1.2 μs 3+# 560.59 MeV
69Br 68.95011(11)# <24 ns 1/2-# 576.11 MeV
70Br 69.94479(33)# 79.1(8) ms 0+# 589.77 MeV
71Br 70.93874(61) 21.4(6) s (5/2)- 603.43 MeV
72Br 71.93664(6) 78.6(24) s 1+ 613.37 MeV
73Br 72.93169(5) 3.4(2) min 1/2- 626.10 MeV
74Br 73.929891(16) 25.4(3) min (0-) 636.03 MeV
75Br 74.925776(15) 96.7(13) min 3/2- 647.83 MeV
76Br 75.924541(10) 16.2(2) h 1- 656.83 MeV
77Br 76.921379(3) 57.036(6) h 3/2- 667.70 MeV
78Br 77.921146(4) 6.46(4) min 1+ 675.77 MeV
79Br 78.9183371(22) STABLE 3/2- 686.63 MeV
80Br 79.9185293(22) 17.68(2) min 1+ 694.70 MeV
81Br 80.9162906(21) STABLE 3/2- 704.64 MeV
82Br 81.9168041(21) 35.282(7) h 5- 712.71 MeV
83Br 82.915180(5) 2.40(2) h 3/2- 721.71 MeV
84Br 83.916479(16) 31.80(8) min 2- 728.85 MeV
85Br 84.915608(21) 2.90(6) min 3/2- 737.86 MeV
86Br 85.918798(12) 55.1(4) s (2-) 743.13 MeV
87Br 86.920711(19) 55.65(13) s 3/2- 749.34 MeV
88Br 87.92407(4) 16.29(6) s (2-) 753.69 MeV
89Br 88.92639(6) 4.40(3) s (3/2-,5/2-) 759.89 MeV
90Br 89.93063(8) 1.91(1) s 764.24 MeV
91Br 90.93397(8) 541(5) ms 3/2-# 769.52 MeV
92Br 91.93926(5) 0.343(15) s (2-) 772.00 MeV
93Br 92.94305(32)# 102(10) ms 3/2-# 776.34 MeV
94Br 93.94868(43)# 70(20) ms 779.76 MeV
95Br 94.95287(54)# 50# ms [>300 ns] 3/2-# 784.10 MeV
96Br 95.95853(75)# 20# ms [>300 ns] 786.59 MeV
97Br 96.96280(86)# 10# ms [>300 ns] 3/2-# 790.93 MeV
Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses. 11

Reactions

Abundance

Earth - Source Compounds: halide salts or brines 16
Earth - Seawater: 67.3 mg/L 17
Earth -  Crust:  2.4 mg/kg = 0.00024% 17
Earth -  Total:  106 ppb 18
Mercury -  Total:  1.2 ppb 18
Venus -  Total:  111 ppb 18
Chondrites - Total: 5 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 19
Human Body - Total: 0.00029% 20

Compounds

1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane; acetylene tetrabromide; Muthmanns liquid
1,2-dibromoethane*; ethylene dibromide; ethylene bromide
1,2-dibromopropane; propylene dibromide
1,3-dibromopropane; trimethylene bromide
1-bromohexadecane; cetyl bromide; hexadecyl bromide
1-bromononane; n-bromononane; nonyl bromide
2-bromooctane; sec-octyl bromide
6-bromohexyltrimethylammonium bromide
acetyl bromide
allyl bromide; 3-bromopropene
allyltriphenylphosphonium bromide
aluminum bromide hexahydrate; aluminium bromide hexahydrate
aluminum bromide; aluminium bromide
ammonium bromide
amyl bromide
antimony tribromide
arsenic oxybromide
arsenic tribromide
barium bromide
barium bromide dihydrate
benzyl bromide; alpha-bromotoluene
berkelium(III) bromide
beryllium bromide
bismuth(III) bromide
bismuth(III) oxybromide
boron tribromide
bromine azide
bromine dioxide
bromine monochloride
bromine monofluoride
bromine monoxide
bromine pentafluoride
bromine trifluoride
butyl bromide; 1-bromobutane
cadmium bromide
calcium bromide
calcium bromide dihydrate
californium(II) bromide
californium(III) bromide
carbon tetrabromide
cerium(III) bromide
cesium bromide; caesium bromide
chromium(II) bromide
chromium(III) bromide
chromium(IV) bromide
cobalt(II) bromide; cobalt dibromide
copper(I) bromide; cuprous bromide
copper(II) bromide
curium(III) bromide
cyanogen bromide
deuterium bromide
dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide
diphenyl methyl bromide
disulfur dibromide
dysprosium(II) bromide
dysprosium(III) bromide
einsteinium(II) bromide
einsteinium(III) bromide
erbium(III) bromide
ethyl bromide; bromoethane
europium(II) bromide
europium(III) bromide

Safety Information


Material Safety Data Sheet - ACI Alloys, Inc.

For More Information

External Links:

Sources

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:6.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(3) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(10) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(11) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(12) - T < -139.794168096055
(13) - T < 743.761213505137
(14) - T < 11263.3606162735
(15) - T > -1989.94557496011
(16) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(17) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(18) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(19) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(20) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.