亜鉛

導入

原子番号: 30
グループ: 12 or II B
原子量: 65.409
期間: 4
CAS番号: 7440-66-6

分類

カルコゲン
ハロゲン
希ガス
ランタノイド元素
アクチノイド元素
希土類元素
プラチナグループメタル
超ウラン
いいえ安定同位体ません
固体
液体
ガス
固体 (予測)

説明 • 用途/機能

Centuries beforezinc was recognized as a distinct element, zinc ores were used for making brass. Tubal-Cain, seven generations from Adam, is mentioned as beingan “instructor in every artificer in brass and iron.” An alloy containing 87% zinc has been found in prehistoric ruins in Transylvania. Metallic zincwas produced in the 13th century A.D. in India by reducing calamine with organic substances such as wool. The metal was rediscovered in Europeby Marggraf in 1746, who showed that it could be obtained by reducing calamine with charcoal. The principal ores of zinc are sphalerite or blende(sulfide), smithsonite (carbonate), calamine (silicate), and franklinite (zinc, manganese, iron oxide). Zinc can be obtained by roasting its ores to formthe oxide and by reduction of the oxide with coal or carbon, with subsequent distillation of the metal. Other methods of extraction are possible. Naturallyoccurring zinc contains five stable isotopes. Twenty three other unstable isotopes and isomers are recognized. Zinc is a bluish-white, lustrous metal.It is brittle at ordinary temperatures but malleable at 100 to 150°C. It is a fair conductor of electricity, and burns in air at high red heat with evolutionof white clouds of the oxide. The metal is employed to form numerous alloys with other metals. Brass, nickel silver, typewriter metal, commercialbronze, spring brass, German silver, soft solder, and aluminum solder are some of the more important alloys. Large quantities of zinc are used to producedie castings, used extensively by the automotive, electrical, and hardware industries. An alloy called Prestal (R), consisting of 78% zinc and 22%aluminum is reported to be almost as strong as steel but as easy to mold as plastic. It is said to be so plastic that it can be molded into form by relativelyinexpensive die casts made of ceramics and cement. It exhibits superplasticity. Zinc is also extensively used to galvanize other metals such as iron toprevent corrosion. Neither zinc nor zirconium is ferromagnetic; but ZrZn2 exhibits ferromagnetism at temperatures below 35 K. Zinc oxide is a uniqueand very useful material to modern civilization. It is widely used in the manufacture of paints, rubber products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, floorcoverings, plastics, printing inks, soap, storage batteries, textiles, electrical equipment, and other products. It has unusual electrical, thermal, optical,and solid-state properties that have not yet been fully investigated. Lithopone, a mixture of zinc sulfide and barium sulfate, is an important pigment.Zinc sulfide is used in making luminous dials, X-ray and TV screens, and fluorescent lights. The chloride and chromate are also important compounds.Zinc is an essential element in the growth of human beings and animals. Tests show that zinc-deficient animals require 50% more food to gain the sameweight as an animal supplied with sufficient zinc. Zinc is not considered to be toxic, but when freshly formed ZnO is inhaled a disorder known as theoxide shakes or zinc chills sometimes occurs. It is recommended that where zinc oxide is encountered good ventilation be provided. The commercialprice of zinc was roughly 50¢/lb ($1.10 kg) in January 1996. Zinc metal with a purity of 99.9999% is priced at about 50¢/g. 1

• "enzymes, protein synthesis, cell division...important for the structure and function of biomembranes...helps to stabilize the structures of RNA, DNA, and ribosomes. Several transcription factors contain 'Zn fingers,' which are needed for the binding of these transcription factors to the DNA. Thus zinc is absolutely necessary for adequate growth, protein synthesis, and cell division. " 2
• "Zinc is a bright, lustrous, white metal and, between 100°C and 150°C, can be shaped by rolling and stamping. Sheet zinc is used in coverings and linings.

The container of a dry cell battery is zinc and serves as the negative plate. Zinc forms are used on which rubber is deposited electrolytically for gloves and swimming caps.

Galvanized iron is iron covered with a thin layer of zinc, which acts as a protective coating and prevents rusting.

Zinc is used in making several important alloys. Brass is composed of copper and zinc; bronze sometimes contains zinc in addition to the copper and tin." 3
• "The most important use for zinc is in providing a protective coating for other metals. Although zinc is an active metal, it forms an adherent oxide coat that protects the zinc from further oxidation by air. Galvanized steel is made by either dipping steel sheets in molten zinc or by electrolytic deposition of zinc on steel. Paints containing zinc powder are also used. The zinc protects the steel directly by keeping the oxygen away. But even if the zinc coating is broken, the steel remains uncorroded because of cathodic reduction. The zinc metal coating becomes the anode and oxidizes in preference to the exposed steel, which becomes the cathode. Zinc is also used as the anode in batteries, including the zinc-carbon dry cell, the alkaline dry cell, and the mercury(II) oxide cell.

Brass is an alloy of copper with 20%-50% zinc. Its discovery predates many centuries the discovery of zinc. The early Romans prepared brass by heating together zinc ore, charcoal, and copper. Today brass is produced by melting a mixture of zinc metals. Brass and similar alloys are important for making castings." 4

物理的特性

融点:5*  419.53 °C = 692.68 K = 787.154 °F
沸点:5* 907 °C = 1180.15 K = 1664.6 °F
昇華点:5 
三重点:5 
臨界点:5 
密度:6  7.14 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

電子構成

電子構成: [Ar] 4s2 3d10
ブロック: d
最高占有エネルギーレベル: 4
ヴァランス電子: 

量子数:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 2
ms = -½

ボンディング

電気陰性度 (ポーリングスケール):7 1.65
Electropositivity (ポーリングスケール): 2.35
電子親和力:8 not stable eV
酸化状態: +2
仕事関数:9 4.30 eV = 6.8886E-19 J

イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 10  kJ/mol  
1 9.3942    906.4
2 17.9644    1733.3
3 39.723    3832.7
4 59.4    5731.2
5 82.6    7969.7
6 108    10420.4
7 134    12929.0
イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 10  kJ/mol  
8 174    16788.4
9 203    19586.5
10 238    22963.5
11 274    26437.0
12 310.8    29987.6
13 419.7    40494.9
14 454    43804.3
イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 10  kJ/mol  
15 490    47277.8
16 542    52295.0
17 579    55865.0
18 619    59724.4
19 698    67346.7
20 738    71206.2
21 1856    179076.7

熱化学

比熱: 0.388 J/g°C 11 = 25.379 J/mol°C = 0.093 cal/g°C = 6.066 cal/mol°C
熱伝導率: 116 (W/m)/K, 27°C 12
融解熱: 7.322 kJ/mol 13 = 111.9 J/g
気化熱: 115.3 kJ/mol 14 = 1762.8 J/g
物質の状態 生成エンタルピー (ΔHf°)15 エントロピ (S°)15 ギブズ自由エネルギー (ΔGf°)15
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 9.95 41.6308 0 0
(g) 31.245 130.72908 38.450 160.8748 22.748 95.177632

同位体

核種 質量 16 人生の半分 16 核スピン 16 結合エネルギー
54Zn 53.99295(43)# 0+ 419.83 MeV
55Zn 54.98398(27)# 20# ms [>1.6 μs] 5/2-# 436.29 MeV
56Zn 55.97238(28)# 36(10) ms 0+ 454.60 MeV
57Zn 56.96479(11)# 38(4) ms 7/2-# 470.13 MeV
58Zn 57.95459(5) 84(9) ms 0+ 487.51 MeV
59Zn 58.94926(4) 182.0(18) ms 3/2- 500.24 MeV
60Zn 59.941827(11) 2.38(5) min 0+ 515.77 MeV
61Zn 60.939511(17) 89.1(2) s 3/2- 525.70 MeV
62Zn 61.934330(11) 9.186(13) h 0+ 538.43 MeV
63Zn 62.9332116(17) 38.47(5) min 3/2- 547.43 MeV
64Zn 63.9291422(7) STABLE 0+ 559.23 MeV
65Zn 64.9292410(7) 243.66(9) d 5/2- 567.30 MeV
66Zn 65.9260334(10) STABLE 0+ 578.17 MeV
67Zn 66.9271273(10) STABLE 5/2- 585.31 MeV
68Zn 67.9248442(10) STABLE 0+ 596.17 MeV
69Zn 68.9265503(10) 56.4(9) min 1/2- 602.38 MeV
70Zn 69.9253193(21) STABLE 0+ 611.38 MeV
71Zn 70.927722(11) 2.45(10) min 1/2- 617.59 MeV
72Zn 71.926858(7) 46.5(1) h 0+ 626.59 MeV
73Zn 72.92978(4) 23.5(10) s (1/2)- 631.87 MeV
74Zn 73.92946(5) 95.6(12) s 0+ 639.94 MeV
75Zn 74.93294(8) 10.2(2) s (7/2+)# 645.22 MeV
76Zn 75.93329(9) 5.7(3) s 0+ 652.36 MeV
77Zn 76.93696(13) 2.08(5) s (7/2+)# 657.64 MeV
78Zn 77.93844(10) 1.47(15) s 0+ 663.84 MeV
79Zn 78.94265(28)# 0.995(19) s (9/2+) 668.19 MeV
80Zn 79.94434(18) 545(16) ms 0+ 674.40 MeV
81Zn 80.95048(32)# 290(50) ms 5/2+# 676.88 MeV
82Zn 81.95442(54)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 681.23 MeV
83Zn 82.96103(54)# 80# ms [>300 ns] 5/2+# 682.78 MeV
値は、#は、純粋に実験データから派生しますが、少なくとも部分的に体系的な傾向からしていないとマーク。弱い代入引数は括弧で囲まれていてスピン。 16

反応

豊富

地球 - ソース化合物: sulfides 19
地球 - 海水: 0.0049 mg/L 20
地球 -  地殻:  70 mg/kg = 0.007% 20
地球 -  リソスフェア:  0.008% 21
地球 -  合計:  74 ppm 22
マーキュリー(惑星) -  合計:  12.1 ppm 22
金星 -  合計:  82 ppm 22
コンドライト - 合計: 130 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 23
人体 - 合計: 0.0033% 24

化合物

物価





安全情報


安全データシート - ACI Alloys, Inc.

詳細については

外部リンク:

ソース

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:35-4:36.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 926-7.
(3) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; pp 559-60.
(4) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 782.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(7) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(9) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(15) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(16) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(17) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 385.
(18) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 138.
(19) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(20) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(21) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(22) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(23) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(24) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.