介绍

原子数: 52
组: 16 or VI A
原子量: 127.6
期: 5
CAS号码: 13494-80-9

分类

金属
非金属
非金属
碱金属
碱土金属
过渡金属
硫族
卤素
惰性气体
镧系元素

稀土元素
铂族金属
超铀
没有稳定的同位素
固体
液体
加油站
固体 (预料到的)

描述 • 用途/功能

Discovered by Muller von Reichenstein in 1782; named by Klaproth, who isolated it in 1798. Tellurium is occasionally found native, but is more often found asthe telluride of gold (calaverite), and combined with other metals. It is recovered commercially from the anode muds produced during the electrolyticrefining of blister copper. The U.S., Canada, Peru, and Japan are the largest Free World producers of the element. Crystalline tellurium has a silverywhiteappearance, and when pure exhibits a metallic luster. It is brittle and easily pulverized. Amorphous tellurium is formed by precipitating telluriumfrom a solution of telluric or tellurous acid. Whether this form is truly amorphous, or made of minute crystals, is open to question. Tellurium is a ptypesemiconductor, and shows greater conductivity in certain directions, depending on alignment of the atoms. Its conductivity increases slightly withexposure to light. It can be doped with silver, copper, gold, tin, or other elements. In air, tellurium burns with a greenish-blue flame, forming the dioxide.Molten tellurium corrodes iron, copper, and stainless steel. Tellurium and its compounds are probably toxic and should be handled with care. Workmenexposed to as little as 0.01 mg/m^3 of air, or less, develop “tellurium breath,” which has a garlic-like odor. Forty two isotopes and isomers of telluriumare known, with atomic masses ranging from 106 to 138. Natural tellurium consists of eight isotopes, two of which are radioactive with very long halflives.Tellurium improves the machinability of copper and stainless steel, and its addition to lead decreases the corrosive action of sulfuric acid on leadand improves its strength and hardness. Tellurium is used as a basic ingredient in blasting caps, and is added to cast iron for chill control. Telluriumis used in ceramics. Bismuth telluride has been used in thermoelectric devices. Tellurium costs about 20¢/g, with a purity of about 99.5%. The metalwith a purity of 99.9999% costs about $2/g. 1

• "It is added to some metals, particularly lead, to increase electrical resistance and improve resistance to heat, corrosion, mechanical shock, and wear." 2

物理性能

熔点:3*  449.51 °C = 722.66 K = 841.118 °F
沸点:3* 988 °C = 1261.15 K = 1810.4 °F
升华点:3 
三相点:3 
临界点:3 
密度:4  6.24 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

电子组态

电子组态: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p4
块: p
最高占据能级: 5
价电子: 6

量子数:

n = 5
ℓ = 1
m = -1
ms = -½

粘接

电负性 (鲍林规模):5 2.1
Electropositivity (鲍林规模): 1.9
电子亲:6 1.9708 eV
氧化态: +4,6,-2
功函数:7 4.70 eV = 7.5294E-19 J

电离能   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 9.0096    869.3
2 18.6    1794.6
电离能   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 27.96    2697.7
4 37.41    3609.5
电离能   eV 8  kJ/mol  
5 58.75    5668.5
6 70.7    6821.5
7 137    13218.5

热化学

比热: 0.202 J/g°C 9 = 25.775 J/mol°C = 0.048 cal/g°C = 6.160 cal/mol°C
导热系数: 2.35 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
融合热: 17.49 kJ/mol 11 = 137.1 J/g
汽化热: 52.55 kJ/mol 12 = 411.8 J/g
物质状态 生成焓 (ΔHf°)13 熵 (S°)13 吉布斯自由能 (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 11.88 49.70592 0 0
(g) 47.02 196.73168 43.65 182.6316 37.55 157.1092

同位素

核素  14 半衰期 14 核自旋 14 结合能
105Te 104.94364(54)# 1# μs 5/2+# 862.69 MeV
106Te 105.93750(14) 70(20) μs [70(+20-10) μs] 0+ 880.08 MeV
107Te 106.93501(32)# 3.1(1) ms 5/2+# 888.15 MeV
108Te 107.92944(11) 2.1(1) s 0+ 905.54 MeV
109Te 108.92742(7) 4.6(3) s (5/2+) 913.61 MeV
110Te 109.92241(6) 18.6(8) s 0+ 921.68 MeV
111Te 110.92111(8) 19.3(4) s (5/2)+# 929.75 MeV
112Te 111.91701(18) 2.0(2) min 0+ 947.14 MeV
113Te 112.91589(3) 1.7(2) min (7/2+) 955.21 MeV
114Te 113.91209(3) 15.2(7) min 0+ 963.28 MeV
115Te 114.91190(3) 5.8(2) min 7/2+ 971.35 MeV
116Te 115.90846(3) 2.49(4) h 0+ 988.74 MeV
117Te 116.908645(14) 62(2) min 1/2+ 996.81 MeV
118Te 117.905828(16) 6.00(2) d 0+ 1,004.88 MeV
119Te 118.906404(9) 16.05(5) h 1/2+ 1,012.95 MeV
120Te 119.90402(1) 稳定 0+ 1,021.02 MeV
121Te 120.904936(28) 19.16(5) d 1/2+ 1,029.10 MeV
122Te 121.9030439(16) 稳定 0+ 1,037.17 MeV
123Te 122.9042700(16) >600E+12 a 1/2+ 1,045.24 MeV
124Te 123.9028179(16) 稳定 0+ 1,053.31 MeV
125Te 124.9044307(16) 稳定 1/2+ 1,061.38 MeV
126Te 125.9033117(16) 稳定 0+ 1,069.45 MeV
127Te 126.9052263(16) 9.35(7) h 3/2+ 1,077.52 MeV
128Te 127.9044631(19) 2.2(3)E+24 a 0+ 1,085.59 MeV
129Te 128.9065982(19) 69.6(3) min 3/2+ 1,093.67 MeV
130Te 129.9062244(21) 790(100)E+18 a 0+ 1,101.74 MeV
131Te 130.9085239(21) 25.0(1) min 3/2+ 1,109.81 MeV
132Te 131.908553(7) 3.204(13) d 0+ 1,117.88 MeV
133Te 132.910955(26) 12.5(3) min (3/2+) 1,116.64 MeV
134Te 133.911369(11) 41.8(8) min 0+ 1,124.71 MeV
135Te 134.91645(10) 19.0(2) s (7/2-) 1,132.78 MeV
136Te 135.92010(5) 17.63(8) s 0+ 1,131.54 MeV
137Te 136.92532(13) 2.49(5) s 3/2-# 1,139.61 MeV
138Te 137.92922(22)# 1.4(4) s 0+ 1,147.68 MeV
139Te 138.93473(43)# 500# ms [>300 ns] 5/2-# 1,146.43 MeV
140Te 139.93885(32)# 300# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 1,154.51 MeV
141Te 140.94465(43)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 5/2-# 1,153.26 MeV
142Te 141.94908(64)# 50# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 1,161.33 MeV
值标记#不是纯粹从实验数据得出,但至少部分来自系统的发展趋势。旋转弱任务参数都包含在括号中。 14

丰富

地球 - 来源化合物: sulfides 15
地球 -  脆皮:  0.001 mg/kg = 0.0000001% 15
地球 -  总:  1490 ppb 16
水星(行星) -  总:  122 ppb 16
金星 -  总:  830 ppb 16
球粒陨石 - 总: 0.60 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

化合物

安全信息


材料安全数据表 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

了解更多信息

外部链接:

来源

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:31.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 953.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.