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Giới thiệu

Số nguyên tử: 50
Nhóm: 14 or IV A
trọng lượng nguyên tử: 118.71
Giai đoạn: 5
Số CAS: 7440-31-5

phân loại

Chalcogen
halogen
Khí hiếm
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Hiếm tử Trái Đất
Platinum Nhóm kim loại
Transuranium
Không có đồng vị ổn định
Chất rắn
Chất lỏng
Khí
Chất rắn (Dự đoán)

Sự miêu tả • Sử dụng / Chức năng

Known to the ancients. Tin is found chiefly in cassiterite (SnO2). Most of the world’s supply comes from Malaysia, Bolivia, China, Indonesia,Russia, Zaire, Thailand, and Nigeria. The U.S. produces almost none, although occurrences have been found in Alaska and Colorado. Tin is obtainedby reducing the ore with coal in a reverberatory furnace. Ordinary tin is composed of ten stable isotopes; thirty five unstable isotopes and isomers arealso known. Ordinary tin is a silver-white metal, is malleable, somewhat ductile, and has a highly crystalline structure. Due to the breaking of thesecrystals, a “tin cry” is heard when a bar is bent. The element has two allotropic forms at normal pressure. On warming, gray, or alpha tin, with a cubicstructure, changes at 13.2°C into white, or beta tin, the ordinary form of the metal. White tin has a tetragonal structure. When tin is cooled below 13.2°C,it changes slowly from white to gray. This change is affected by impurities such as aluminum and zinc, and can be prevented by small additions ofantimony or bismuth. This change from the alpha to beta form is called the tin pest. There are few if any uses for gray tin. Tin takes a high polish and is usedto coat other metals to prevent corrosion or other chemical action. Such tin plate over steel is used in the so-called tin can for preserving food. Alloysof tin are very important. Soft solder, type metal, fusible metal, pewter, bronze, bell metal, Babbitt metal, White metal, die casting alloy, and phosphorbronze are some of the important alloys using tin. Tin resists distilled sea and soft tap water, but is attacked by strong acids, alkalis, and acid salts. Oxygenin solution accelerates the attack. When heated in air, tin forms SnO2, which is feebly acid, forming stannate salts with basic oxides. The most importantsalt is the chloride (SnCl2 · H2O), which is used as a reducing agent and as a mordant in calico printing. Tin salts sprayed onto glass are used to produceelectrically conductive coatings. These have been used for panel lighting and for frost-free windshields. Most window glass is now made by floatingmolten glass on molten tin (float glass) to produce a flat surface (Pilkington process). Of recent interest is a crystalline tin-niobium alloy that issuperconductive at very low temperatures. This promises to be important in the construction of superconductive magnets that generate enormous fieldstrengths but use practically no power. Such magnets, made of tin-niobium wire, weigh but a few pounds and produce magnetic fields that, when startedwith a small battery, are comparable to that of a 100 ton electromagnet operated continuously with a large power supply. The small amount of tin foundin canned foods is quite harmless. The agreed limit of tin content in U.S. foods is 300 mg/kg. The trialkyl and triaryl tin compounds are used as biocidesand must be handled carefully. Over the past 25 years the price of commercial tin has varied from 50¢/lb ($1.10/kg) to its present price of about $4.30/lb ($9.50/kg) as of January 1996. Tin with a purity of 99.9999% is available at a price of about $4/g. 1

• "The major current use for tin is as a protective coating for steel, especially for cans used as food containers" 2
• "Tin is most commonly seen as a coating for iron in what we rather incorrectly call "tin" cans and roofing. When clean iron is plunged into melted tin, the tin sticks to or "wets" the iron, so that the iron, when withdrawn, is found to have a thin coating of tin. This, if thick enough, protects the iron from corrosion; and since tin is not acted on by fruit and vegetable juices, tinned iron (tin plate) makes a satisfactory container for many foods. Electroplating is cheaper than this hot-dip process.

Solder, babbitt metal, and most bronzes contain tin as one of their constituents. Pure tin, under the name black tin, is used for the pipes of soda-water fountains because it is not affected by the solution of carbon dioxide. Because it is not readily acted upon tin is also used in separators and pasteurizers for milk, and in tubes for toilet preparations. Tin foil is made by rolling the metal into thin sheets. Aluminum foil has largely replaced tin foil.

Tin compounds are sometimes used in dyeing, especially for silks; they brighten the colors and make the goods seem richer and heavier." 3

Tính chất vật lý

Form:4 gray
Độ nóng chảy:4*  13.2 °C = 286.35 K = 55.76 °F
Điểm sôi:4* 2602 °C = 2875.15 K = 4715.6 °F
điểm thăng hoa:4 
ba điểm:4 
Điểm cốt lõi:4 
Form:4 white
Độ nóng chảy:4*  231.93 °C = 505.08 K = 449.474 °F
Điểm sôi:4* 2602 °C = 2875.15 K = 4715.6 °F
điểm thăng hoa:4 
ba điểm:4 
Điểm cốt lõi:4 
Tỉ trọng:5  5.769 (gray)/7.265 (white) g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

electron Cấu hình

electron Cấu hình: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p2
Khối: p
Cao nhất Chiếm Năng lượng Cấp: 5
Valence electron: 4

số lượng tử:

n = 5
ℓ = 1
m = 0
ms = +½

bonding

Độ âm điện (thang Pauling):6 1.96
Electropositivity (thang Pauling): 2.04
electron Affinity:7 1.112067 eV
Quá trình oxy hóa Hoa: +4,2
Chức năng làm việc:8 4.35 eV = 6.9687E-19 J

ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 9  kJ/mol  
1 7.3439    708.6
ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 9  kJ/mol  
2 14.63225    1411.8
3 30.5026    2943.1
ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 9  kJ/mol  
4 40.73502    3930.3
5 72.28    6974.0

nhiệt hóa học

Nhiệt dung riêng: 0.228 J/g°C 10 = 27.066 J/mol°C = 0.054 cal/g°C = 6.469 cal/mol°C
Dẫn nhiệt: 66.6 (W/m)/K, 27°C 11
Nhiệt Fusion: 7.029 kJ/mol 12 = 59.2 J/g
Nhiệt bay hơi: 295.8 kJ/mol 13 = 2491.8 J/g
Nhà nước Matter Entanpi của Formation (ΔHf°)14 entropy (S°)14 Gibbs miễn phí năng lượng (ΔGf°)14
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s white) 0 0 12.32 51.54688 0 0
(s gray) -0.50 -2.092 10.55 44.1412 0.03 0.12552
(g) 72.2 302.0848 40.243 168.376712 63.9 267.3576

Đồng vị

Nuclide Khối lượng 15 Half-Life 15 spin hạt nhân 15 Ràng buộc năng lượng
100Sn 99.93904(76) 1.1(4) s [0.94(+54-27) s] 0+ 824.83 MeV
101Sn 100.93606(32)# 3(1) s 5/2+# 841.29 MeV
102Sn 101.93030(14) 4.5(7) s 0+ 849.36 MeV
103Sn 102.92810(32)# 7.0(6) s 5/2+# 866.75 MeV
104Sn 103.92314(11) 20.8(5) s 0+ 874.82 MeV
105Sn 104.92135(9) 34(1) s (5/2+) 882.89 MeV
106Sn 105.91688(5) 115(5) s 0+ 900.28 MeV
107Sn 106.91564(9) 2.90(5) min (5/2+) 908.35 MeV
108Sn 107.911925(21) 10.30(8) min 0+ 916.42 MeV
109Sn 108.911283(11) 18.0(2) min 5/2(+) 924.49 MeV
110Sn 109.907843(15) 4.11(10) h 0+ 941.88 MeV
111Sn 110.907734(7) 35.3(6) min 7/2+ 949.95 MeV
112Sn 111.904818(5) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 958.02 MeV
113Sn 112.905171(4) 115.09(3) d 1/2+ 966.09 MeV
114Sn 113.902779(3) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 974.16 MeV
115Sn 114.903342(3) ỔN ĐỊNH 1/2+ 982.23 MeV
116Sn 115.901741(3) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 990.30 MeV
117Sn 116.902952(3) ỔN ĐỊNH 1/2+ 998.37 MeV
118Sn 117.901603(3) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 1,006.45 MeV
119Sn 118.903308(3) ỔN ĐỊNH 1/2+ 1,014.52 MeV
120Sn 119.9021947(27) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 1,022.59 MeV
121Sn 120.9042355(27) 27.03(4) h 3/2+ 1,030.66 MeV
122Sn 121.9034390(29) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 1,038.73 MeV
123Sn 122.9057208(29) 129.2(4) d 11/2- 1,046.80 MeV
124Sn 123.9052739(15) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 1,054.87 MeV
125Sn 124.9077841(16) 9.64(3) d 11/2- 1,062.95 MeV
126Sn 125.907653(11) 2.30(14)E+5 a 0+ 1,071.02 MeV
127Sn 126.910360(26) 2.10(4) h (11/2-) 1,069.77 MeV
128Sn 127.910537(29) 59.07(14) min 0+ 1,077.84 MeV
129Sn 128.91348(3) 2.23(4) min (3/2+)# 1,085.92 MeV
130Sn 129.913967(11) 3.72(7) min 0+ 1,093.99 MeV
131Sn 130.917000(23) 56.0(5) s (3/2+) 1,102.06 MeV
132Sn 131.917816(15) 39.7(8) s 0+ 1,110.13 MeV
133Sn 132.92383(4) 1.45(3) s (7/2-)# 1,108.89 MeV
134Sn 133.92829(11) 1.050(11) s 0+ 1,116.96 MeV
135Sn 134.93473(43)# 530(20) ms (7/2-) 1,115.71 MeV
136Sn 135.93934(54)# 0.25(3) s 0+ 1,123.78 MeV
137Sn 136.94599(64)# 190(60) ms 5/2-# 1,122.54 MeV
99Sn 98.94933(64)# 5# ms 9/2+# 807.45 MeV
Các giá trị được đánh dấu # được không hoàn toàn xuất phát từ số liệu thực nghiệm, nhưng ít nhất một phần từ các xu hướng có hệ thống. Quay với lập luận phân yếu được kèm theo trong ngoặc đơn. 15

phản ứng

phong phú

trái đất - nguồn hợp chất: oxides 18
trái đất - Nước biển: 0.000004 mg/L 19
trái đất -  vỏ trái đất:  2.3 mg/kg = 0.00023% 19
trái đất -  Tổng số:  390 ppb 20
Mercury (hành tinh) -  Tổng số:  64 ppb 20
sao Kim -  Tổng số:  430 ppb 20
chondrite - Tổng số: 0.56 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 21
Cơ thể con người - Tổng số: 0.00002% 22

Các hợp chất

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Liện kết ngoại:

tạp chí:
(1) Ehrenberg, Rachel. The Element Tin Flout's Carbon's Chemistry Rules. Science News, October 24, 2009, pp 13.

nguồn

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:32.
(2) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; p 890.
(3) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 557.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(8) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(14) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(15) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(16) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Metals & Metalloids; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; pg. 97.
(17) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Metals & Metalloids; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; pg. 49.
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(19) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(20) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(21) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(22) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.