ロジウム

導入

原子番号: 45
グループ: 9 or VIII B
原子量: 102.9055
期間: 5
CAS番号: 7440-16-6

分類

カルコゲン
ハロゲン
希ガス
ランタノイド元素
アクチノイド元素
希土類元素
プラチナグループメタル
超ウラン
いいえ安定同位体ません
固体
液体
ガス
固体 (予測)

説明 • 用途/機能

Wollaston discovered rhodium in 1803-4 in crude platinum ore he presumably obtained from South America. Rhodium occurs native withother platinum metals in river sands of the Urals and in North and South America. It is also found with other platinum metals in the copper-nickel sulfideores of the Sudbury, Ontario region. Although the quantity occurring here is very small, the large tonnages of nickel processed make the recoverycommercially feasible. The annual world production of rhodium is only 7 or 8 tons. The metal is silvery white and at red heat slowly changes in airto the sesquioxide. At higher temperatures it converts back to the element. Rhodium has a higher melting point and lower density than platinum. Itsmajor use is as an alloying agent to harden platinum and palladium. Such alloys are used for furnace windings, thermocouple elements, bushings forglass fiber production, electrodes for aircraft spark plugs, and laboratory crucibles. It is useful as an electrical contact material as it has a low electricalresistance, a low and stable contact resistance, and is highly resistant to corrosion. Plated rhodium, produced by electroplating or evaporation, isexceptionally hard and is used for optical instruments. It has a high reflectance and is hard and durable. Rhodium is also used for jewelry, for decoration,and as a catalyst. Forty four isotopes and isomers are now known. Soluble salts should not exceed 0.01 mg/m^3. Rhodium metal (powder) costs about$300/g (99.9% pure). 1

• "An exceedingly thin coating of rhodium is used to give rhodium finish, a warm satiny luster, feebly pink, to jewelry." 2

物理的特性

融点:3*  1964 °C = 2237.15 K = 3567.2 °F
沸点:3* 3695 °C = 3968.15 K = 6683 °F
昇華点:3 
三重点:3 
臨界点:3 
密度:4  12.4 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

電子構成

電子構成:  *[Kr] 5s1 4d8
ブロック: d
最高占有エネルギーレベル: 5
ヴァランス電子: 

量子数:

n = 4
ℓ = 2
m = 0
ms = -½

ボンディング

電気陰性度 (ポーリングスケール):5 2.28
Electropositivity (ポーリングスケール): 1.72
電子親和力:6 1.137 eV
酸化状態: +3,4,6
仕事関数:7 4.98 eV = 7.97796E-19 J

イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 7.4589    719.7
イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 8  kJ/mol  
2 18.08    1744.5
イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 31.06    2996.8

熱化学

比熱: 0.243 J/g°C 9 = 25.006 J/mol°C = 0.058 cal/g°C = 5.977 cal/mol°C
熱伝導率: 150 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
融解熱: 21.5 kJ/mol 11 = 208.9 J/g
気化熱: 493 kJ/mol 12 = 4790.8 J/g
物質の状態 生成エンタルピー (ΔHf°)13 エントロピ (S°)13 ギブズ自由エネルギー (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.56 31.63104 0 0
(g) 133.1 556.8904 44.383 185.698472 122.1 510.8664

同位体

核種 質量 14 人生の半分 14 核スピン 14 結合エネルギー
100Rh 99.908122(20) 20.8(1) h 1- 857.62 MeV
101Rh 100.906164(18) 3.3(3) a 1/2- 873.15 MeV
102Rh 101.906843(5) 207.0(15) d (1-,2-) 881.22 MeV
103Rh 102.905504(3) STABLE 1/2- 889.29 MeV
104Rh 103.906656(3) 42.3(4) s 1+ 897.36 MeV
105Rh 104.905694(4) 35.36(6) h 7/2+ 905.43 MeV
106Rh 105.907287(8) 29.80(8) s 1+ 913.50 MeV
107Rh 106.906748(13) 21.7(4) min 7/2+ 921.57 MeV
108Rh 107.90873(11) 16.8(5) s 1+ 929.64 MeV
109Rh 108.908737(13) 80(2) s 7/2+ 937.72 MeV
110Rh 109.91114(5) 28.5(15) s (>3)(+#) 936.47 MeV
111Rh 110.91159(3) 11(1) s (7/2+) 944.54 MeV
112Rh 111.91439(6) 3.45(37) s 1+ 952.62 MeV
113Rh 112.91553(5) 2.80(12) s (7/2+) 960.69 MeV
114Rh 113.91881(12) 1.85(5) s 1+ 968.76 MeV
115Rh 114.92033(9) 0.99(5) s (7/2+)# 967.51 MeV
116Rh 115.92406(15) 0.68(6) s 1+ 975.59 MeV
117Rh 116.92598(54)# 0.44(4) s (7/2+)# 983.66 MeV
118Rh 117.93007(54)# 310(30) ms (4-10)(+#) 982.41 MeV
119Rh 118.93211(64)# 300# ms [>300 ns] 7/2+# 990.48 MeV
120Rh 119.93641(64)# 200# ms [>300 ns] 998.56 MeV
121Rh 120.93872(97)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 7/2+# 1,006.63 MeV
122Rh 121.94321(75)# 50# ms [>300 ns] 1,005.38 MeV
89Rh 88.94884(48)# 10# ms [>1.5 μs] 7/2+# 731.58 MeV
90Rh 89.94287(54)# 15(7) ms [12(+9-4) ms] 0+# 745.24 MeV
91Rh 90.93655(43)# 1.74(14) s 7/2+# 758.90 MeV
92Rh 91.93198(43)# 4.3(13) s (6+) 771.63 MeV
93Rh 92.92574(43)# 11.9(7) s 9/2+# 785.29 MeV
94Rh 93.92170(48)# 70.6(6) s (2+,4+) 797.08 MeV
95Rh 94.91590(16) 5.02(10) min (9/2)+ 810.75 MeV
96Rh 95.914461(14) 9.90(10) min (6+) 819.75 MeV
97Rh 96.91134(4) 30.7(6) min 9/2+ 830.61 MeV
98Rh 97.910708(13) 8.72(12) min (2)+ 839.62 MeV
99Rh 98.908132(8) 16.1(2) d 1/2- 849.55 MeV
値は、#は、純粋に実験データから派生しますが、少なくとも部分的に体系的な傾向からしていないとマーク。弱い代入引数は括弧で囲まれていてスピン。 14

豊富

地球 -  地殻:  0.001 mg/kg = 0.0000001% 15
地球 -  合計:  252 ppb 16
マーキュリー(惑星) -  合計:  194 ppb 16
金星 -  合計:  265 ppb 16
コンドライト - 合計: 0.25 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

化合物

安全情報


安全データシート - ACI Alloys, Inc.

詳細については

外部リンク:

ソース

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:26.
(2) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 545.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.