ネオジム

導入

原子番号: 60
グループ: なし
原子量: 144.24
期間: 6
CAS番号: 7440-00-8

分類

カルコゲン
ハロゲン
希ガス
ランタノイド元素
アクチノイド元素
希土類元素
プラチナグループメタル
超ウラン
いいえ安定同位体ません
固体
液体
ガス
固体 (予測)

説明 • 用途/機能

In 1841, Mosander, extracted from cerite a new rose-colored oxide, which he believed contained a new element. He named the element didymium,as it was an inseparable twin brother of lanthanum. In 1885 von Welsbach separated didymium into two new elemental components, neodymia andpraseodymia, by repeated fractionation of ammonium didymium nitrate. While the free metal is in misch metal, long known and used as a pyrophoricalloy for light flints, the element was not isolated in relatively pure form until 1925. Neodymium is present in misch metal to the extent of about 18%.It is present in the minerals monazite and bastnasite, which are principal sources of rare-earth metals. The element may be obtained by separatingneodymium salts from other rare earths by ion-exchange or solvent extraction techniques, and by reducing anhydrous halides such as Ndf3 with calciummetal. Other separation techniques are possible. The metal has a bright silvery metallic luster. Neodymium is one of the more reactive rare-earth metalsand quickly tarnishes in air, forming an oxide that spalls off and exposes metal to oxidation. The metal, therefore, should be kept under light mineral oil or sealed in a plastic material. Neodymium exists in two allotropic forms, with a transformation from a double hexagonal to a body-centered cubicstructure taking place at 863°C. Natural neodymium is a mixture of seven isotopes, one of which has a very long half-life. Twenty seven otherradioactive isotopes and isomers are recognized. Didymium, of which neodymium is a component, is used for coloring glass to make welder’s goggles.By itself, neodymium colors glass delicate shades ranging from pure violet through wine-red and warm gray. Light transmitted through such glassshows unusually sharp absorption bands. The glass has been used in astronomical work to produce sharp bands by which spectral lines may becalibrated. Glass containing neodymium can be used as a laser material to produce coherent light. Neodymium salts are also used as a colorant forenamels. The element is also being used with iron and boron to produce extremely strong magnets having energy densities as high as 27 to 35 milliongauss oersteds. These are the most compact magnets commercially available. The price of the metal is about $2/g. Neodymium has a low-to-moderateacute toxic rating. As with other rare earths, neodymium should be handled with care. 1

• "the magnet in a large wind turbine may contain 500 pounds or more of neodymium." 2
• "A neodymium-based magnet is many times stronger than a conventional ferrite magnet of the same size" 3
• "Hybrid cars would not exist without rare earth elements...neodymium magnets for their electric motors." 4
• "tint[s] sunglasses." 5
• "Some power tools rely on neodymium...magnets to shrink their motors." 6

物理的特性

融点:7*  1021 °C = 1294.15 K = 1869.8 °F
沸点:7* 3074 °C = 3347.15 K = 5565.2 °F
昇華点:7 
三重点:7 
臨界点:7 
密度:8  7.01 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

電子構成

電子構成:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f4
ブロック: f
最高占有エネルギーレベル: 6
ヴァランス電子: 2

量子数:

n = 4
ℓ = 3
m = 0
ms = +½

ボンディング

電気陰性度 (ポーリングスケール):9 1.14
Electropositivity (ポーリングスケール): 2.86
仕事関数:10 3.1 eV = 4.9662E-19 J

イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 11  kJ/mol  
1 5.525    533.1
イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 11  kJ/mol  
2 10.73    1035.3
イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 11  kJ/mol  
3 22.1    2132.3
4 40.41    3899.0

熱化学

比熱: 0.190 J/g°C 12 = 27.406 J/mol°C = 0.045 cal/g°C = 6.550 cal/mol°C
熱伝導率: 16.5 (W/m)/K, 27°C 13
融解熱: 7.14 kJ/mol 14 = 49.5 J/g
気化熱: 273 kJ/mol 15 = 1892.7 J/g
物質の状態 生成エンタルピー (ΔHf°)16 エントロピ (S°)16 ギブズ自由エネルギー (ΔGf°)16
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 17.1 71.5464 0 0
(g) 78.3 327.6072 45.24 189.28416 69.9 292.4616

同位体

核種 質量 17 人生の半分 17 核スピン 17 結合エネルギー
124Nd 123.95223(64)# 500# ms 0+ 1,000.48 MeV
125Nd 124.94888(43)# 600(150) ms 5/2(+#) 1,017.86 MeV
126Nd 125.94322(43)# 1# s [>200 ns] 0+ 1,025.93 MeV
127Nd 126.94050(43)# 1.8(4) s 5/2+# 1,034.00 MeV
128Nd 127.93539(21)# 5# s 0+ 1,051.39 MeV
129Nd 128.93319(22)# 4.9(2) s 5/2+# 1,059.46 MeV
130Nd 129.92851(3) 21(3) s 0+ 1,076.85 MeV
131Nd 130.92725(3) 33(3) s (5/2)(+#) 1,084.92 MeV
132Nd 131.923321(26) 1.56(10) min 0+ 1,092.99 MeV
133Nd 132.92235(5) 70(10) s (7/2+) 1,101.06 MeV
134Nd 133.918790(13) 8.5(15) min 0+ 1,118.45 MeV
135Nd 134.918181(21) 12.4(6) min 9/2(-) 1,126.52 MeV
136Nd 135.914976(13) 50.65(33) min 0+ 1,134.59 MeV
137Nd 136.914567(12) 38.5(15) min 1/2+ 1,142.66 MeV
138Nd 137.911950(13) 5.04(9) h 0+ 1,150.73 MeV
139Nd 138.911978(28) 29.7(5) min 3/2+ 1,158.81 MeV
140Nd 139.90955(3) 3.37(2) d 0+ 1,176.19 MeV
141Nd 140.909610(4) 2.49(3) h 3/2+ 1,184.26 MeV
142Nd 141.9077233(25) STABLE 0+ 1,192.33 MeV
143Nd 142.9098143(25) STABLE 7/2- 1,200.41 MeV
144Nd 143.9100873(25) 2.29(16)E+15 a 0+ 1,199.16 MeV
145Nd 144.9125736(25) STABLE 7/2- 1,207.23 MeV
146Nd 145.9131169(25) STABLE 0+ 1,215.30 MeV
147Nd 146.9161004(25) 10.98(1) d 5/2- 1,223.38 MeV
148Nd 147.916893(3) STABLE 0+ 1,231.45 MeV
149Nd 148.920149(3) 1.728(1) h 5/2- 1,230.20 MeV
150Nd 149.920891(3) 6.7(7)E+18 a 0+ 1,238.27 MeV
151Nd 150.923829(3) 12.44(7) min 3/2+ 1,246.35 MeV
152Nd 151.924682(26) 11.4(2) min 0+ 1,254.42 MeV
153Nd 152.927698(29) 31.6(10) s (3/2)- 1,262.49 MeV
154Nd 153.92948(12) 25.9(2) s 0+ 1,270.56 MeV
155Nd 154.93293(16)# 8.9(2) s 3/2-# 1,269.32 MeV
156Nd 155.93502(22) 5.49(7) s 0+ 1,277.39 MeV
157Nd 156.93903(21)# 2# s [>300 ns] 5/2-# 1,285.46 MeV
158Nd 157.94160(43)# 700# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 1,284.22 MeV
159Nd 158.94609(54)# 500# ms 7/2+# 1,292.29 MeV
160Nd 159.94909(64)# 300# ms 0+ 1,300.36 MeV
161Nd 160.95388(75)# 200# ms 1/2-# 1,299.11 MeV
値は、#は、純粋に実験データから派生しますが、少なくとも部分的に体系的な傾向からしていないとマーク。弱い代入引数は括弧で囲まれていてスピン。 17

豊富

地球 - ソース化合物: phosphates 18
地球 - 海水: 0.0000028 mg/L 19
地球 -  地殻:  41.5 mg/kg = 0.00415% 19
地球 -  合計:  690 ppb 20
マーキュリー(惑星) -  合計:  530 ppb 20
金星 -  合計:  723 ppb 20
コンドライト - 合計: 0.64 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 21

化合物

安全情報


安全データシート - ACI Alloys, Inc.

詳細については

外部リンク:

マガジン:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

ソース

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:20.
(2) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 138.
(3) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 144.
(4) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 140.
(5) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 140.
(6) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 140.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(9) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(10) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(16) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(17) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(19) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(20) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(21) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.