介绍

原子数: 25
组: 7 or VII B
原子量: 54.938049
期: 4
CAS号码: 7439-96-5

分类

金属
非金属
非金属
碱金属
碱土金属
过渡金属
硫族
卤素
惰性气体
镧系元素

稀土元素
铂族金属
超铀
没有稳定的同位素
固体
液体
加油站
固体 (预料到的)

描述 • 用途/功能

Recognized by Scheele, Bergman,and others as an element and isolated by Gahn in 1774 by reduction of the dioxide with carbon. Manganese minerals are widely distributed; oxides,silicates, and carbonates are the most common. The discovery of large quantities of manganese nodules on the floor of the oceans holds promise asa source of manganese. These nodules contain about 24% manganese together with many other elements in lesser abundance. Most manganese todayis obtained from ores found in the Ukraine, Brazil, Australia, Republic of South Africa, Gabon, China, and India. Pyrolusite (MnO2) and rhodochrosite(MnCO3) are among the most common manganese minerals. The metal is obtained by reduction of the oxide with sodium, magnesium, aluminum,or by electrolysis. It is gray-white, resembling iron, but is harder and very brittle. The metal is reactive chemically, and decomposes cold water slowly.Manganese is used to form many important alloys. In steel, manganese improves the rolling and forging qualities, strength, toughness, stiffness, wearresistance, hardness, and hardenability. With aluminum and antimony, especially with small amounts of copper, it forms highly ferromagnetic alloys.Manganese metal is ferromagnetic only after special treatment. The pure metal exists in four allotropic forms. The alpha form is stable at ordinarytemperature; gamma manganese, which changes to alpha at ordinary temperatures, is said to be flexible, soft, easily cut, and capable of being bent.The dioxide (pyrolusite) is used as a depolarizer in dry cells, and is used to “decolorize” glass that is colored green by impurities of iron. Manganeseby itself colors glass an amethyst color, and is responsible for the color of true amethyst. The dioxide is also used in the preparation of oxygen andchlorine, and in drying black paints. The permanganate is a powerful oxidizing agent and is used in quantitative analysis and in medicine. Manganeseis widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom. It is an important trace element and may be essential for utilization of vitamin B1. Twenty threeisotopes and isomers are known. Manganese metal (99.95%) is priced at about $400/kg. Metal of 99.6% purity is priced at about $60/kg. 1

• "like vanadium and chromium, is used mostly to make steel alloys." 2
• "...is an important element in steels that must withstand great shock, such as those used to construct rock crushers." 3
• "enzymes, bone…essential for enzymes in humans and other animals" 4
• "The metal is used in alloys with iron5

物理性能

熔点:6*  1246 °C = 1519.15 K = 2274.8 °F
沸点:6* 2061 °C = 2334.15 K = 3741.8 °F
升华点:6 
三相点:6 
临界点:6 
密度:7  7.3 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

电子组态

电子组态: [Ar] 4s2 3d5
块: d
最高占据能级: 4
价电子: 

量子数:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 2
ms = +½

粘接

电负性 (鲍林规模):8 1.55
Electropositivity (鲍林规模): 2.45
电子亲:9 not stable eV
氧化态: +2,3,4,6,7
功函数:10 3.90 eV = 6.2478E-19 J

电离能   eV 11  kJ/mol  
1 7.43402    717.3
2 15.63999    1509.0
3 33.668    3248.5
4 51.2    4940.0
5 72.4    6985.5
6 95.6    9224.0
7 119.203    11501.3
8 194.5    18766.4
电离能   eV 11  kJ/mol  
9 221.8    21400.4
10 248.3    23957.3
11 286    27594.8
12 314.4    30335.0
13 343.6    33152.4
14 403    38883.6
15 435.163    41986.8
16 1134.7    109481.9
电离能   eV 11  kJ/mol  
17 1224    118098.0
18 1317    127071.2
19 1437    138649.4
20 1539    148490.9
21 1644    158621.8
22 1788    172515.7
23 1879.9    181382.7
24 8140.6    785448.3
25 8571.94    827066.3

热化学

比热: 0.479 J/g°C 12 = 26.315 J/mol°C = 0.114 cal/g°C = 6.290 cal/mol°C
导热系数: 7.82 (W/m)/K, 27°C 13
融合热: 12.05 kJ/mol 14 = 219.3 J/g
汽化热: 266 kJ/mol 15 = 4841.8 J/g
物质状态 生成焓 (ΔHf°)16 熵 (S°)16 吉布斯自由能 (ΔGf°)16
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s alpha) 0 0 7.65 32.0076 0 0
(s gamma) 0.37 1.54808 7.75 32.426 0.34 1.42256
(g) 67.1 280.7464 41.49 173.59416 57.0 238.488

同位素

核素  17 半衰期 17 核自旋 17 结合能
44Mn 44.00687(54)# <105 ns (2-)# 329.99 MeV
45Mn 44.99451(32)# <70 ns (7/2-)# 349.24 MeV
46Mn 45.98672(12)# 37(3) ms (4+) 364.76 MeV
47Mn 46.97610(17)# 100(50) ms 5/2-# 382.15 MeV
48Mn 47.96852(12) 158.1(22) ms 4+ 397.67 MeV
49Mn 48.959618(26) 382(7) ms 5/2- 414.13 MeV
50Mn 49.9542382(11) 283.29(8) ms 0+ 426.86 MeV
51Mn 50.9482108(11) 46.2(1) min 5/2- 440.52 MeV
52Mn 51.9455655(21) 5.591(3) d 6+ 451.38 MeV
53Mn 52.9412901(9) 3.74(4)E+6 a 7/2- 463.18 MeV
54Mn 53.9403589(14) 312.03(3) d 3+ 472.18 MeV
55Mn 54.9380451(7) 稳定 5/2- 482.12 MeV
56Mn 55.9389049(7) 2.5789(1) h 3+ 490.19 MeV
57Mn 56.9382854(20) 85.4(18) s 5/2- 498.26 MeV
58Mn 57.93998(3) 3.0(1) s 1+ 505.40 MeV
59Mn 58.94044(3) 4.59(5) s (5/2)- 512.54 MeV
60Mn 59.94291(9) 51(6) s 0+ 518.75 MeV
61Mn 60.94465(24) 0.67(4) s (5/2)- 524.95 MeV
62Mn 61.94843(24) 671(5) ms (3+) 529.30 MeV
63Mn 62.95024(28) 275(4) ms 5/2-# 535.51 MeV
64Mn 63.95425(29) 88.8(25) ms (1+) 539.85 MeV
65Mn 64.95634(58) 92(1) ms 5/2-# 546.06 MeV
66Mn 65.96108(43)# 64.4(18) ms 549.48 MeV
67Mn 66.96414(54)# 45(3) ms 5/2-# 554.75 MeV
68Mn 67.96930(64)# 28(4) ms 558.17 MeV
69Mn 68.97284(86)# 14(4) ms 5/2-# 563.44 MeV
值标记#不是纯粹从实验数据得出,但至少部分来自系统的发展趋势。旋转弱任务参数都包含在括号中。 17

反应

丰富

地球 - 来源化合物: oxides 19
地球 - 海水: 0.0002 mg/L 20
地球 -  脆皮:  950 mg/kg = 0.095% 20
地球 -  岩石圈:  0.11% 21
地球 -  总:  750 ppm 22
水星(行星) -  总:  150 ppm 22
金星 -  总:  460 ppm 22
球粒陨石 - 总: 7400 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 23
人体 - 总: 0.00002% 24

化合物

价格





安全信息


材料安全数据表 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

了解更多信息

外部链接:

来源

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:18-4:19.
(2) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 2006; p 1013.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 903.
(4) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 926-7.
(5) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 8.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(8) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(10) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(16) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(17) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(18) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 206.
(19) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(20) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(21) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(22) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(23) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(24) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.