LUTETIUM

pagpapakilala

Atomic Number: 71
grupo: wala
Atomic Timbang: 174.967
panahon: 6
CAS Number: 7439-94-3

pag-uuri

Chalcogen
halogen
Noble Gas
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Rare Earth Element
Platinum Group Metal
transuranium
No Stable Isotopes
matatag
likido
Gas
matatag (Nahulaang)

paglalarawan • Paggamit / Function

In 1907, Urbain described a process by which Marignac’s ytterbium (1879) could be separated into thetwo elements, ytterbium (neoytterbium)and lutetium. These elements were identical with “aldebaranium” and “cassiopeium,” independentlydiscovered by von Welsbach about the same time. Charles James of the University of New Hampshire also independently prepared the very pure oxide,lutecia, at this time. The spelling of the element was changed from lutecium to lutetium in 1949. Lutetium occurs in very small amounts in nearly allminerals containing yttrium, and is present in monazite to the extent of about 0.003%, which is a commercial source. The pure metal has been isolatedonly in recent years and is one of the most difficult to prepare. It can be prepared by the reduction of anhydrous LuCl3 or Luf3 by an alkali or alkalineearth metal. The metal is silvery white and relatively stable in air. While new techniques, including ion-exchange reactions, have been developed toseparate the various rare-earth elements, lutetium is still the most costly of all rare earths. It is priced at about $100/g. Lutetium-176 occurs naturally (97.41%)with lutetium-175 (2.59%), which is radioactive with a very long half-life. It is radioactive with a half-life of about 4 X 10^10 years. Lutetium has 49 isotopesand isomers that are now recognized. Stable lutetium nuclides, which emit pure beta radiation after thermal neutron activation, can be used as catalystsin cracking, alkylation, hydrogenation, and polymerization. Virtually no other commercial uses have been found yet for lutetium. While lutetium, likeother rare-earth metals, is thought to have a low toxicity rating, it should be handled with care until more information is available. 1

• "is in PET scanners." 2

pisikal na Katangian

Temperatura ng pagkatunaw:3*  1663 °C = 1936.15 K = 3025.4 °F
Punto ng pag-kulo:3* 3402 °C = 3675.15 K = 6155.6 °F
pangingimbabaw Point:3 
triple Point:3 
Critical Point:3 
densidad:4  9.84 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Electron Configuration

Electron Configuration:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d1
bloke: f
Pinakamataas Sinasakupan Level Energy: 6
valence electron: 2

quantum Numbers:

n = 5
ℓ = 2
m = -2
ms = +½

bonding

electronegativity (Pauling scale):5 1.0
Electropositivity (Pauling scale): 3

ionization Potensyal   eV 6  kJ/mol  
1 5.4259    523.5
ionization Potensyal   eV 6  kJ/mol  
2 13.9    1341.1
3 20.9594    2022.3
ionization Potensyal   eV 6  kJ/mol  
4 45.25    4366.0
5 66.8    6445.2

termokimika

Tukoy Heat: 0.154 J/g°C 7 = 26.945 J/mol°C = 0.037 cal/g°C = 6.440 cal/mol°C
thermal kondaktibiti: 16.4 (W/m)/K, 27°C 8
Heat ng Fusion: 18.6 kJ/mol 9 = 106.3 J/g
Heat ng paggawa ng usok: 355.9 kJ/mol 10 = 2034.1 J/g
State of Matter Entalpya ng Formation (ΔHf°)11 entropy (S°)11 Gibbs Libreng Enerhiya (ΔGf°)11
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 12.18 50.96112 0 0
(g) 102.2 427.6048 44.14 184.68176 96.7 404.5928

isotopes

nuclide masa 12 Half-Life 12 nuclear Spin 12 Binding Energy
150Lu 149.97323(54)# 43(5) ms (2+) 1,183.09 MeV
151Lu 150.96758(43)# 80.6(19) ms (11/2-) 1,200.48 MeV
152Lu 151.96412(21)# 650(70) ms (5-,6-) 1,208.55 MeV
153Lu 152.95877(22) 0.9(2) s 11/2- 1,225.94 MeV
154Lu 153.95752(22)# 1# s (2-) 1,234.01 MeV
155Lu 154.954316(22) 68.6(16) ms (11/2-) 1,242.08 MeV
156Lu 155.95303(8) 494(12) ms (2)- 1,250.15 MeV
157Lu 156.950098(20) 6.8(18) s (1/2+,3/2+) 1,258.22 MeV
158Lu 157.949313(16) 10.6(3) s 2- 1,275.61 MeV
159Lu 158.94663(4) 12.1(10) s 1/2+# 1,283.68 MeV
160Lu 159.94603(6) 36.1(3) s 2-# 1,291.75 MeV
161Lu 160.94357(3) 77(2) s 1/2+ 1,299.82 MeV
162Lu 161.94328(8) 1.37(2) min (1-) 1,307.89 MeV
163Lu 162.94118(3) 3.97(13) min 1/2(+) 1,315.97 MeV
164Lu 163.94134(3) 3.14(3) min 1(-) 1,324.04 MeV
165Lu 164.939407(28) 10.74(10) min 1/2+ 1,341.42 MeV
166Lu 165.93986(3) 2.65(10) min (6-) 1,349.49 MeV
167Lu 166.93827(3) 51.5(10) min 7/2+ 1,357.57 MeV
168Lu 167.93874(5) 5.5(1) min (6-) 1,365.64 MeV
169Lu 168.937651(6) 34.06(5) h 7/2+ 1,373.71 MeV
170Lu 169.938475(18) 2.012(20) d 0+ 1,381.78 MeV
171Lu 170.9379131(30) 8.24(3) d 7/2+ 1,389.85 MeV
172Lu 171.939086(3) 6.70(3) d 4- 1,397.92 MeV
173Lu 172.9389306(26) 1.37(1) a 7/2+ 1,405.99 MeV
174Lu 173.9403375(26) 3.31(5) a (1)- 1,404.75 MeV
175Lu 174.9407718(23) STABLE 7/2+ 1,412.82 MeV
176Lu 175.9426863(23) 38.5(7)E+9 a 7- 1,420.89 MeV
177Lu 176.9437581(23) 6.6475(20) d 7/2+ 1,428.96 MeV
178Lu 177.945955(3) 28.4(2) min 1(+) 1,437.04 MeV
179Lu 178.947327(6) 4.59(6) h 7/2(+) 1,445.11 MeV
180Lu 179.94988(8) 5.7(1) min 5+ 1,453.18 MeV
181Lu 180.95197(32)# 3.5(3) min (7/2+) 1,451.93 MeV
182Lu 181.95504(21)# 2.0(2) min (0,1,2) 1,460.01 MeV
183Lu 182.95757(32)# 58(4) s (7/2+) 1,468.08 MeV
184Lu 183.96091(43)# 20(3) s (3+) 1,466.83 MeV
Values ​​minarkahan # ang hindi pulos nagmula sa pang-eksperimentong data, ngunit hindi bababa sa bahagyang mula sistematikong uso. Spins na may mahinang assignment argumento ay nakapaloob sa panaklong. 12

kasaganaan

lupa - Source compounds: phosphates 13
lupa - seawater: 0.00000015 mg/L 14
lupa -  pang-ibabaw:  0.8 mg/kg = 0.00008% 14
lupa -  total:  386 ppb 15
Mercury (planeta) -  total:  297 ppb 15
Benus -  total:  405 ppb 15
Chondrites - total: 0.031 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 16

compounds

Impormasyong pangkaligtasan


Material Safety Data Sheet - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Para sa karagdagang impormasyon

panlabas na Links:

Magazines:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

Pinagmumulan

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:18.
(2) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 143.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(11) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(12) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(13) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(15) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(16) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.