ल्यूटेशियम

परिचय

परमाणु क्रमांक: 71
समूह: कोई नहीं
परमाण्विक भार: 174.967
अवधि: 6
सीएएस संख्या: 7439-94-3

वर्गीकरण

धातु
अधातु
धातु के रूप-रंग का एक अधातु पदार्थ
अलकाली धातु
क्षार पृथ्वी धातु
संक्रमण धातु
Chalcogen
हलोजन
नोबल गैस
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
दुर्लभ पृथ्वी तत्व
प्लेटिनम समूह धातु
Transuranium
कोई स्थिर आइसोटोप
ठोस
तरल
गैस
ठोस (भविष्यवाणी की)

विवरण • उपयोग करता है / समारोह

In 1907, Urbain described a process by which Marignac’s ytterbium (1879) could be separated into thetwo elements, ytterbium (neoytterbium)and lutetium. These elements were identical with “aldebaranium” and “cassiopeium,” independentlydiscovered by von Welsbach about the same time. Charles James of the University of New Hampshire also independently prepared the very pure oxide,lutecia, at this time. The spelling of the element was changed from lutecium to lutetium in 1949. Lutetium occurs in very small amounts in nearly allminerals containing yttrium, and is present in monazite to the extent of about 0.003%, which is a commercial source. The pure metal has been isolatedonly in recent years and is one of the most difficult to prepare. It can be prepared by the reduction of anhydrous LuCl3 or Luf3 by an alkali or alkalineearth metal. The metal is silvery white and relatively stable in air. While new techniques, including ion-exchange reactions, have been developed toseparate the various rare-earth elements, lutetium is still the most costly of all rare earths. It is priced at about $100/g. Lutetium-176 occurs naturally (97.41%)with lutetium-175 (2.59%), which is radioactive with a very long half-life. It is radioactive with a half-life of about 4 X 10^10 years. Lutetium has 49 isotopesand isomers that are now recognized. Stable lutetium nuclides, which emit pure beta radiation after thermal neutron activation, can be used as catalystsin cracking, alkylation, hydrogenation, and polymerization. Virtually no other commercial uses have been found yet for lutetium. While lutetium, likeother rare-earth metals, is thought to have a low toxicity rating, it should be handled with care until more information is available. 1

• "is in PET scanners." 2

भौतिक गुण

गलनांक:3*  1663 °C = 1936.15 K = 3025.4 °F
क्वथनांक:3* 3402 °C = 3675.15 K = 6155.6 °F
उच्च बनाने की क्रिया प्वाइंट:3 
तीन बिंदु:3 
महत्वपूर्ण बिंदु:3 
घनत्व:4  9.84 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

ऋणावेशित सूक्ष्म अणु का विन्यास

ऋणावेशित सूक्ष्म अणु का विन्यास:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d1
खंड: f
उच्चतम अधिकृत एनर्जी लेवल: 6
अणु की संयोजन क्षमता: 2

क्वांटम संख्याएं:

n = 5
ℓ = 2
m = -2
ms = +½

संबंध

वैद्युतीयऋणात्मकता (पॉलिंग पैमाने):5 1.0
Electropositivity (पॉलिंग पैमाने): 3

आयनीकरण क्षमता   eV 6  kJ/mol  
1 5.4259    523.5
आयनीकरण क्षमता   eV 6  kJ/mol  
2 13.9    1341.1
3 20.9594    2022.3
आयनीकरण क्षमता   eV 6  kJ/mol  
4 45.25    4366.0
5 66.8    6445.2

ऊष्मारसायन

विशिष्ट ताप: 0.154 J/g°C 7 = 26.945 J/mol°C = 0.037 cal/g°C = 6.440 cal/mol°C
ऊष्मीय चालकता: 16.4 (W/m)/K, 27°C 8
फ्यूजन की गर्मी: 18.6 kJ/mol 9 = 106.3 J/g
वाष्पीकरण की ऊष्मा: 355.9 kJ/mol 10 = 2034.1 J/g
पदार्थ की अवस्था गठन की तापीय धारिता (ΔHf°)11 entropy (S°)11 गिब्स नि: शुल्क ऊर्जा (ΔGf°)11
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 12.18 50.96112 0 0
(g) 102.2 427.6048 44.14 184.68176 96.7 404.5928

आइसोटोप

nuclide सामूहिक 12 हाफ लाइफ 12 परमाणु स्पिन 12 बंधन ऊर्जा
150Lu 149.97323(54)# 43(5) ms (2+) 1,183.09 MeV
151Lu 150.96758(43)# 80.6(19) ms (11/2-) 1,200.48 MeV
152Lu 151.96412(21)# 650(70) ms (5-,6-) 1,208.55 MeV
153Lu 152.95877(22) 0.9(2) s 11/2- 1,225.94 MeV
154Lu 153.95752(22)# 1# s (2-) 1,234.01 MeV
155Lu 154.954316(22) 68.6(16) ms (11/2-) 1,242.08 MeV
156Lu 155.95303(8) 494(12) ms (2)- 1,250.15 MeV
157Lu 156.950098(20) 6.8(18) s (1/2+,3/2+) 1,258.22 MeV
158Lu 157.949313(16) 10.6(3) s 2- 1,275.61 MeV
159Lu 158.94663(4) 12.1(10) s 1/2+# 1,283.68 MeV
160Lu 159.94603(6) 36.1(3) s 2-# 1,291.75 MeV
161Lu 160.94357(3) 77(2) s 1/2+ 1,299.82 MeV
162Lu 161.94328(8) 1.37(2) min (1-) 1,307.89 MeV
163Lu 162.94118(3) 3.97(13) min 1/2(+) 1,315.97 MeV
164Lu 163.94134(3) 3.14(3) min 1(-) 1,324.04 MeV
165Lu 164.939407(28) 10.74(10) min 1/2+ 1,341.42 MeV
166Lu 165.93986(3) 2.65(10) min (6-) 1,349.49 MeV
167Lu 166.93827(3) 51.5(10) min 7/2+ 1,357.57 MeV
168Lu 167.93874(5) 5.5(1) min (6-) 1,365.64 MeV
169Lu 168.937651(6) 34.06(5) h 7/2+ 1,373.71 MeV
170Lu 169.938475(18) 2.012(20) d 0+ 1,381.78 MeV
171Lu 170.9379131(30) 8.24(3) d 7/2+ 1,389.85 MeV
172Lu 171.939086(3) 6.70(3) d 4- 1,397.92 MeV
173Lu 172.9389306(26) 1.37(1) a 7/2+ 1,405.99 MeV
174Lu 173.9403375(26) 3.31(5) a (1)- 1,404.75 MeV
175Lu 174.9407718(23) स्थिर 7/2+ 1,412.82 MeV
176Lu 175.9426863(23) 38.5(7)E+9 a 7- 1,420.89 MeV
177Lu 176.9437581(23) 6.6475(20) d 7/2+ 1,428.96 MeV
178Lu 177.945955(3) 28.4(2) min 1(+) 1,437.04 MeV
179Lu 178.947327(6) 4.59(6) h 7/2(+) 1,445.11 MeV
180Lu 179.94988(8) 5.7(1) min 5+ 1,453.18 MeV
181Lu 180.95197(32)# 3.5(3) min (7/2+) 1,451.93 MeV
182Lu 181.95504(21)# 2.0(2) min (0,1,2) 1,460.01 MeV
183Lu 182.95757(32)# 58(4) s (7/2+) 1,468.08 MeV
184Lu 183.96091(43)# 20(3) s (3+) 1,466.83 MeV
मान चिह्नित # विशुद्ध रूप से प्रयोगात्मक डेटा से प्राप्त नहीं कर रहे हैं, लेकिन कम से कम आंशिक रूप से व्यवस्थित प्रवृत्तियों से। Spins कमजोर तर्क के साथ काम कोष्ठकों में संलग्न हैं। 12

प्रचुरता

पृथ्वी - स्रोत यौगिकों: phosphates 13
पृथ्वी - समुद्र के पानी: 0.00000015 mg/L 14
पृथ्वी -  भूपटल:  0.8 mg/kg = 0.00008% 14
पृथ्वी -  कुल:  386 ppb 15
पारा ग्रह) -  कुल:  297 ppb 15
शुक्र -  कुल:  405 ppb 15
Chondrites - कुल: 0.031 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 16

यौगिकों

सुरक्षा जानकारी


सामग्री सुरक्षा डाटा शीट - ACI Alloys, Inc.

अधिक जानकारी के लिए

बाहरी कड़ियाँ:

पत्रिका:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

सूत्रों का कहना है

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:18.
(2) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 143.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(11) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(12) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(13) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(15) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(16) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.