LUTETIUM

Inleiding

atoomgetal: 71
groep: Geen
atoomgewig: 174.967
tydperk: 6
CAS nommer: 7439-94-3

klassifikasie

Metal
metaal
metaalagtige
alkalimetaal
Alkali aard metaal
oorgangsmetaal
Chalcogen
halogeen
edelgas
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Rare Earth Element
Platinumgroepmetaalverwante
transuraan
Geen stabiele isotope
Solied
Liquid
gas
Solied (voorspel)

beskrywing • Gebruike / Function

In 1907, Urbain described a process by which Marignac’s ytterbium (1879) could be separated into thetwo elements, ytterbium (neoytterbium)and lutetium. These elements were identical with “aldebaranium” and “cassiopeium,” independentlydiscovered by von Welsbach about the same time. Charles James of the University of New Hampshire also independently prepared the very pure oxide,lutecia, at this time. The spelling of the element was changed from lutecium to lutetium in 1949. Lutetium occurs in very small amounts in nearly allminerals containing yttrium, and is present in monazite to the extent of about 0.003%, which is a commercial source. The pure metal has been isolatedonly in recent years and is one of the most difficult to prepare. It can be prepared by the reduction of anhydrous LuCl3 or Luf3 by an alkali or alkalineearth metal. The metal is silvery white and relatively stable in air. While new techniques, including ion-exchange reactions, have been developed toseparate the various rare-earth elements, lutetium is still the most costly of all rare earths. It is priced at about $100/g. Lutetium-176 occurs naturally (97.41%)with lutetium-175 (2.59%), which is radioactive with a very long half-life. It is radioactive with a half-life of about 4 X 10^10 years. Lutetium has 49 isotopesand isomers that are now recognized. Stable lutetium nuclides, which emit pure beta radiation after thermal neutron activation, can be used as catalystsin cracking, alkylation, hydrogenation, and polymerization. Virtually no other commercial uses have been found yet for lutetium. While lutetium, likeother rare-earth metals, is thought to have a low toxicity rating, it should be handled with care until more information is available. 1

• "is in PET scanners." 2

Fisiese eienskappe

Smeltpunt:3*  1663 °C = 1936.15 K = 3025.4 °F
Kookpunt:3* 3402 °C = 3675.15 K = 6155.6 °F
sublimasie Point:3 
Drie Point:3 
kritieke punt:3 
digtheid:4  9.84 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

elektronkonfigurasie

elektronkonfigurasie:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d1
Blok: f
Hoogste Besig energievlak: 6
valenselektrone: 2

kwantumgetalle:

n = 5
ℓ = 2
m = -2
ms = +½

binding

elektronegatiwiteit (Pauling skaal):5 1.0
Electropositivity (Pauling skaal): 3

ionisasiepotensiaal   eV 6  kJ/mol  
1 5.4259    523.5
ionisasiepotensiaal   eV 6  kJ/mol  
2 13.9    1341.1
3 20.9594    2022.3
ionisasiepotensiaal   eV 6  kJ/mol  
4 45.25    4366.0
5 66.8    6445.2

termochemie

Spesifieke hitte: 0.154 J/g°C 7 = 26.945 J/mol°C = 0.037 cal/g°C = 6.440 cal/mol°C
Termiese geleidingsvermoë: 16.4 (W/m)/K, 27°C 8
Verhit van Fusion: 18.6 kJ/mol 9 = 106.3 J/g
Hitte van verdamping: 355.9 kJ/mol 10 = 2034.1 J/g
Toestand van materie Entalpie van vorming (ΔHf°)11 entropie (S°)11 Gibbs vrye energie (ΔGf°)11
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 12.18 50.96112 0 0
(g) 102.2 427.6048 44.14 184.68176 96.7 404.5928

isotope

nuklied Mis 12 Halflewe 12 kern Spin 12 bindingsenergie
150Lu 149.97323(54)# 43(5) ms (2+) 1,183.09 MeV
151Lu 150.96758(43)# 80.6(19) ms (11/2-) 1,200.48 MeV
152Lu 151.96412(21)# 650(70) ms (5-,6-) 1,208.55 MeV
153Lu 152.95877(22) 0.9(2) s 11/2- 1,225.94 MeV
154Lu 153.95752(22)# 1# s (2-) 1,234.01 MeV
155Lu 154.954316(22) 68.6(16) ms (11/2-) 1,242.08 MeV
156Lu 155.95303(8) 494(12) ms (2)- 1,250.15 MeV
157Lu 156.950098(20) 6.8(18) s (1/2+,3/2+) 1,258.22 MeV
158Lu 157.949313(16) 10.6(3) s 2- 1,275.61 MeV
159Lu 158.94663(4) 12.1(10) s 1/2+# 1,283.68 MeV
160Lu 159.94603(6) 36.1(3) s 2-# 1,291.75 MeV
161Lu 160.94357(3) 77(2) s 1/2+ 1,299.82 MeV
162Lu 161.94328(8) 1.37(2) min (1-) 1,307.89 MeV
163Lu 162.94118(3) 3.97(13) min 1/2(+) 1,315.97 MeV
164Lu 163.94134(3) 3.14(3) min 1(-) 1,324.04 MeV
165Lu 164.939407(28) 10.74(10) min 1/2+ 1,341.42 MeV
166Lu 165.93986(3) 2.65(10) min (6-) 1,349.49 MeV
167Lu 166.93827(3) 51.5(10) min 7/2+ 1,357.57 MeV
168Lu 167.93874(5) 5.5(1) min (6-) 1,365.64 MeV
169Lu 168.937651(6) 34.06(5) h 7/2+ 1,373.71 MeV
170Lu 169.938475(18) 2.012(20) d 0+ 1,381.78 MeV
171Lu 170.9379131(30) 8.24(3) d 7/2+ 1,389.85 MeV
172Lu 171.939086(3) 6.70(3) d 4- 1,397.92 MeV
173Lu 172.9389306(26) 1.37(1) a 7/2+ 1,405.99 MeV
174Lu 173.9403375(26) 3.31(5) a (1)- 1,404.75 MeV
175Lu 174.9407718(23) STAL 7/2+ 1,412.82 MeV
176Lu 175.9426863(23) 38.5(7)E+9 a 7- 1,420.89 MeV
177Lu 176.9437581(23) 6.6475(20) d 7/2+ 1,428.96 MeV
178Lu 177.945955(3) 28.4(2) min 1(+) 1,437.04 MeV
179Lu 178.947327(6) 4.59(6) h 7/2(+) 1,445.11 MeV
180Lu 179.94988(8) 5.7(1) min 5+ 1,453.18 MeV
181Lu 180.95197(32)# 3.5(3) min (7/2+) 1,451.93 MeV
182Lu 181.95504(21)# 2.0(2) min (0,1,2) 1,460.01 MeV
183Lu 182.95757(32)# 58(4) s (7/2+) 1,468.08 MeV
184Lu 183.96091(43)# 20(3) s (3+) 1,466.83 MeV
Waardes gemerk # is nie suiwer afgelei van eksperimentele data, maar ten minste gedeeltelik uit sistematiese tendense. Draai met 'n swak werkstuk argumente is ingesluit in hakies. 12

oorvloed

aarde - bron verbindings: phosphates 13
aarde - seewater: 0.00000015 mg/L 14
aarde -  kors:  0.8 mg/kg = 0.00008% 14
aarde -  Totaal:  386 ppb 15
Mercury (planeet) -  Totaal:  297 ppb 15
Venus -  Totaal:  405 ppb 15
Chondrites - Totaal: 0.031 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 16

verbindings

veiligheid inligting

Vir meer inligting

eksterne skakel:

tydskrifte:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

Bronne

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:18.
(2) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 143.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(11) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(12) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(13) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(15) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(16) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.