THỦY NGÂN

Giới thiệu

Số nguyên tử: 80
Nhóm: 12 or II B
trọng lượng nguyên tử: 200.59
Giai đoạn: 6
Số CAS: 7439-97-6

phân loại

Chalcogen
halogen
Khí hiếm
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Hiếm tử Trái Đất
Platinum Nhóm kim loại
Transuranium
Không có đồng vị ổn định
Chất rắn
Chất lỏng
Khí
Chất rắn (Dự đoán)

Sự miêu tả • Sử dụng / Chức năng

Known to ancient Chinese and Hindus; found in Egyptian tombs of 1500 B.C. Mercury is the only common metal liquid at ordinarytemperatures. It only rarely occurs free in nature. The chief ore is cinnabar (HgS). Spain and Italy produce about 50% of the world’s supply of themetal. The commercial unit for handling mercury is the “flask,” which weighs 76 lb (34.46 kg) and is priced at about $250. The metal is obtained byheating cinnabar in a current of air and by condensing the vapor. It is a heavy, silvery-white metal; a rather poor conductor of heat, as compared withother metals, and a fair conductor of electricity. It easily forms alloys with many metals, such as gold, silver, and tin, which are called amalgams. Itsease in amalgamating with gold is made use of in the recovery of gold from its ores. The metal is widely used in laboratory work for makingthermometers, barometers, diffusion pumps, and many other instruments. It is used in making mercury-vapor lamps and advertising signs, etc. andis used in mercury switches and other electrical apparatus. Other uses are in making pesticides, mercury cells for caustic soda and chlorine production,dental preparations, antifouling paint, batteries, and catalysts. The most important salts are mercuric chloride HgCl2 (corrosive sublimate — a violentpoison), mercurous chloride Hg2Cl2 (calomel, occasionally still used in medicine), mercury fulminate (Hg(ONC)2), a detonator widely used inexplosives, and mercuric sulfide (HgS, vermillion, a high-grade paint pigment). Organic mercury compounds are important. It has been found thatan electrical discharge causes mercury vapor to combine with neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. These products, held together with van der Waals’forces, correspond to HgNe, HgAr, HgKr, and HgXe. Mercury is a virulent poison and is readily absorbed through the respiratory tract, thegastrointestinal tract, or through unbroken skin. It acts as a cumulative poison and dangerous levels are readily attained in air. Air saturated with mercuryvapor at 20°C contains a concentration that exceeds the toxic limit many times. The danger increases at higher temperatures. It is therefore importantthat mercury be handled with care. Containers of mercury should be securely covered and spillage should be avoided. If it is necessary to heat mercuryor mercury compounds, it should be done in a well-ventilated hood. Methyl mercury is a dangerous pollutant and is now widely found in water andstreams. The triple point of mercury, –38.8344°C, is a fixed point on the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90). Native mercury contains sevenisotopes. Thirty five other isotopes and isomers are known. 1

• "The fact that mercury is a liquid at ordinary temperatures, with a low freezing point of -39°C and regularity of its expansion by heat makes it useful in thermometers. Its density, 13.6 makes it useful in barometers." 2

Tính chất vật lý

Độ nóng chảy:3
Điểm sôi:3* 356.73 °C = 629.88 K = 674.114 °F
điểm thăng hoa:3 
ba điểm:3 -38.837 °C = 234.313 K = -37.9066 °F
Điểm cốt lõi:3 1477 °C = 1750.15 K = 2690.6 °F 3
Tỉ trọng:4  13.5336 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

electron Cấu hình

electron Cấu hình: [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10
Khối: d
Cao nhất Chiếm Năng lượng Cấp: 6
Valence electron: 

số lượng tử:

n = 5
ℓ = 2
m = 2
ms = -½

bonding

Độ âm điện (thang Pauling):5 1.9
Electropositivity (thang Pauling): 2.1
electron Affinity:6 not stable eV
Quá trình oxy hóa Hoa: +2,1
Chức năng làm việc:7 4.50 eV = 7.209E-19 J

ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 10.4375    1007.1
ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 8  kJ/mol  
2 18.756    1809.7
ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 34.2    3299.8

nhiệt hóa học

Nhiệt dung riêng: 0.140 J/g°C 9 = 28.083 J/mol°C = 0.033 cal/g°C = 6.712 cal/mol°C
Dẫn nhiệt: 8.34 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Nhiệt Fusion: 2.295 kJ/mol 11 = 11.4 J/g
Nhiệt bay hơi: 59.229 kJ/mol 12 = 295.3 J/g
Nhà nước Matter Entanpi của Formation (ΔHf°)13 entropy (S°)13 Gibbs miễn phí năng lượng (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(ℓ) 0 0 18.17 76.02328 0 0
(g) 14.655 61.31652 41.79 174.84936 7.613 31.852792

Đồng vị

Nuclide Khối lượng 14 Half-Life 14 spin hạt nhân 14 Ràng buộc năng lượng
171Hg 171.00376(32)# 80(30) μs [59(+36-16) μs] 3/2-# 1,317.61 MeV
172Hg 171.99883(22) 420(240) μs [0.25(+35-9) ms] 0 1,334.99 MeV
173Hg 172.99724(22)# 1.1(4) ms [0.6(+5-2) ms] 3/2-# 1,343.06 MeV
174Hg 173.992864(21) 2.0(4) ms [2.1(+18-7) ms] 0+ 1,351.13 MeV
175Hg 174.99142(11) 10.8(4) ms 5/2-# 1,359.21 MeV
176Hg 175.987355(15) 20.4(15) ms 0+ 1,376.59 MeV
177Hg 176.98628(8) 127.3(18) ms 5/2-# 1,384.66 MeV
178Hg 177.982483(14) 0.269(3) s 0+ 1,392.73 MeV
179Hg 178.981834(29) 1.09(4) s 5/2-# 1,400.81 MeV
180Hg 179.978266(15) 2.58(1) s 0+ 1,418.19 MeV
181Hg 180.977819(17) 3.6(1) s 1/2(-) 1,426.26 MeV
182Hg 181.97469(1) 10.83(6) s 0+ 1,434.33 MeV
183Hg 182.974450(9) 9.4(7) s 1/2- 1,442.41 MeV
184Hg 183.971713(11) 30.6(3) s 0+ 1,450.48 MeV
185Hg 184.971899(17) 49.1(10) s 1/2- 1,458.55 MeV
186Hg 185.969362(12) 1.38(6) min 0+ 1,475.93 MeV
187Hg 186.969814(15) 1.9(3) min 3/2- 1,484.01 MeV
188Hg 187.967577(12) 3.25(15) min 0+ 1,492.08 MeV
189Hg 188.96819(4) 7.6(1) min 3/2- 1,500.15 MeV
190Hg 189.966322(17) 20.0(5) min 0+ 1,508.22 MeV
191Hg 190.967157(24) 49(10) min 3/2(-) 1,516.29 MeV
192Hg 191.965634(17) 4.85(20) h 0+ 1,524.36 MeV
193Hg 192.966665(17) 3.80(15) h 3/2- 1,532.43 MeV
194Hg 193.965439(13) 444(77) a 0+ 1,540.51 MeV
195Hg 194.966720(25) 10.53(3) h 1/2- 1,548.58 MeV
196Hg 195.965833(3) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 1,556.65 MeV
197Hg 196.967213(3) 64.14(5) h 1/2- 1,564.72 MeV
198Hg 197.9667690(4) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 1,572.79 MeV
199Hg 198.9682799(4) ỔN ĐỊNH 1/2- 1,580.86 MeV
200Hg 199.9683260(4) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 1,588.93 MeV
201Hg 200.9703023(6) ỔN ĐỊNH 3/2- 1,587.69 MeV
202Hg 201.9706430(6) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 1,595.76 MeV
203Hg 202.9728725(18) 46.595(6) d 5/2- 1,603.83 MeV
204Hg 203.9734939(4) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 1,611.90 MeV
205Hg 204.976073(4) 5.14(9) min 1/2- 1,619.97 MeV
206Hg 205.977514(22) 8.15(10) min 0+ 1,628.05 MeV
207Hg 206.98259(16) 2.9(2) min (9/2+) 1,626.80 MeV
208Hg 207.98594(32)# 42(5) min [41(+5-4) min] 0+ 1,634.87 MeV
209Hg 208.99104(21)# 37(8) s 9/2+# 1,633.63 MeV
210Hg 209.99451(32)# 10# min [>300 ns] 0+ 1,641.70 MeV
Các giá trị được đánh dấu # được không hoàn toàn xuất phát từ số liệu thực nghiệm, nhưng ít nhất một phần từ các xu hướng có hệ thống. Quay với lập luận phân yếu được kèm theo trong ngoặc đơn. 14

phản ứng

phong phú

trái đất - nguồn hợp chất: sulfides 17
trái đất - Nước biển: 0.00003 mg/L 18
trái đất -  vỏ trái đất:  0.085 mg/kg = 0.0000085% 18
trái đất -  Tổng số:  7.9 ppb 19
Mercury (hành tinh) -  Tổng số:  0.09 ppb 19
sao Kim -  Tổng số:  8.3 ppb 19
chondrite - Tổng số: 0.10 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 20

Các hợp chất

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Liện kết ngoại:

tạp chí:
(1) Putman, John J.. Quicksilver and Slow Death. National Geographic, October 1972, pp 507-527.

nguồn

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:19.
(2) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 538.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 74.
(16) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Metals & Metalloids; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; pg. 50.
(17) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(18) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(19) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(20) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.