介绍

原子数: 32
组: 14 or IV A
原子量: 72.64
期: 4
CAS号码: 7440-56-2

分类

金属
非金属
非金属
碱金属
碱土金属
过渡金属
硫族
卤素
惰性气体
镧系元素

稀土元素
铂族金属
超铀
没有稳定的同位素
固体
液体
加油站
固体 (预料到的)

描述 • 用途/功能

Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekasilicon, and discovered by Winkler in 1886. The metal is found in argyrodite, a sulfide of germanium and silver;in germanite, which contains 8% of the element; in zinc ores; in coal; and in other minerals. The element is frequently obtained commercially fromflue dusts of smelters processing zinc ores, and has been recovered from the by-products of combustion of certain coals. Its presence in coal insuresa large reserve of the element in the years to come. Germanium can be separated from other metals by fractional distillation of its volatile tetrachloride.The tetrachloride may then be hydrolyzed to give GeO2; the dioxide can be reduced with hydrogen to give the metal. Recently developed zone-refiningtechniques permit the production of germanium of ultra-high purity. The element is a gray-white metalloid, and in its pure state is crystalline and brittle,retaining its luster in air at room temperature. It is a very important semiconductor material. Zone-refining techniques have led to production ofcrystalline germanium for semiconductor use with an impurity of only one part in 10^10. Doped with arsenic, gallium, or other elements, it is used asa transistor element in thousands of electronic applications. Its application as a semiconductor element now provides the largest use for germanium.Germanium is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. Germaniumand germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitiveinfrared detectors. Germanium oxide’s high index of refraction and dispersion has made it useful as a component of glasses used in wide-angle cameralenses and microscope objectives. The field of organogermanium chemistry is becoming increasingly important. Certain germanium compounds havea low mammalian toxicity, but a marked activity against certain bacteria, which makes them of interest as chemotherapeutic agents. The cost ofgermanium is about $3/g (99.999% purity). Twenty nine isotopes and isomers are known, five of which occur naturally. 1

• "is a semimetal used mainly in the manufacture of semiconductors for transistors and similar electronic devices" 2

物理性能

熔点:3*  938.25 °C = 1211.4 K = 1720.85 °F
沸点:3* 2833 °C = 3106.15 K = 5131.4 °F
升华点:3 
三相点:3 
临界点:3 
密度:4  5.3234 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

电子组态

电子组态: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p2
块: p
最高占据能级: 4
价电子: 4

量子数:

n = 4
ℓ = 1
m = 0
ms = +½

粘接

电负性 (鲍林规模):5 2.01
Electropositivity (鲍林规模): 1.99
电子亲:6 1.232712 eV
氧化态: +4,2
功函数:7 5.0 eV = 8.01E-19 J

电离能   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 7.8994    762.2
电离能   eV 8  kJ/mol  
2 15.93462    1537.5
3 34.2241    3302.1
电离能   eV 8  kJ/mol  
4 45.7131    4410.6
5 93.5    9021.4

热化学

比热: 0.320 J/g°C 9 = 23.245 J/mol°C = 0.076 cal/g°C = 5.556 cal/mol°C
导热系数: 59.9 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
融合热: 36.94 kJ/mol 11 = 508.5 J/g
汽化热: 330.9 kJ/mol 12 = 4555.3 J/g
物质状态 生成焓 (ΔHf°)13 熵 (S°)13 吉布斯自由能 (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.43 31.08712 0 0
(g) 90.0 376.56 40.103 167.790952 80.3 335.9752

同位素

核素  14 半衰期 14 核自旋 14 结合能
58Ge 57.99101(34)# 0+ 451.48 MeV
59Ge 58.98175(30)# 7/2-# 468.87 MeV
60Ge 59.97019(25)# 30# ms 0+ 487.19 MeV
61Ge 60.96379(32)# 39(12) ms (3/2-)# 501.78 MeV
62Ge 61.95465(15)# 129(35) ms 0+ 518.23 MeV
63Ge 62.94964(21)# 142(8) ms (3/2-)# 530.96 MeV
64Ge 63.94165(3) 63.7(25) s 0+ 546.49 MeV
65Ge 64.93944(11) 30.9(5) s (3/2)- 556.42 MeV
66Ge 65.93384(3) 2.26(5) h 0+ 570.08 MeV
67Ge 66.932734(5) 18.9(3) min 1/2- 579.08 MeV
68Ge 67.928094(7) 270.95(16) d 0+ 590.88 MeV
69Ge 68.9279645(14) 39.05(10) h 5/2- 599.88 MeV
70Ge 69.9242474(11) 稳定 0+ 610.75 MeV
71Ge 70.9249510(11) 11.43(3) d 1/2- 618.82 MeV
72Ge 71.9220758(18) 稳定 0+ 628.76 MeV
73Ge 72.9234589(18) 稳定 9/2+ 635.90 MeV
74Ge 73.9211778(18) 稳定 0+ 645.83 MeV
75Ge 74.9228589(18) 82.78(4) min 1/2- 652.97 MeV
76Ge 75.9214026(18) 1.78(8)E+21 a 0+ 661.97 MeV
77Ge 76.9235486(18) 11.30(1) h 7/2+ 668.18 MeV
78Ge 77.922853(4) 88(1) min 0+ 677.18 MeV
79Ge 78.9254(1) 18.98(3) s (1/2)- 682.46 MeV
80Ge 79.92537(3) 29.5(4) s 0+ 690.53 MeV
81Ge 80.92882(13) 7.6(6) s 9/2+# 695.81 MeV
82Ge 81.92955(26) 4.55(5) s 0+ 702.95 MeV
83Ge 82.93462(21)# 1.85(6) s (5/2+)# 706.36 MeV
84Ge 83.93747(32)# 0.947(11) s 0+ 711.64 MeV
85Ge 84.94303(43)# 535(47) ms 5/2+# 714.12 MeV
86Ge 85.94649(54)# >150 ns 0+ 719.40 MeV
87Ge 86.95251(54)# 0.14# s 5/2+# 721.88 MeV
88Ge 87.95691(75)# >=300 ns 0+ 726.23 MeV
89Ge 88.96383(97)# >150 ns 3/2+# 727.78 MeV
值标记#不是纯粹从实验数据得出,但至少部分来自系统的发展趋势。旋转弱任务参数都包含在括号中。 14

丰富

地球 - 来源化合物: sulfides 15
地球 - 海水: 0.00005 mg/L 16
地球 -  脆皮:  1.5 mg/kg = 0.00015% 16
地球 -  总:  7.6 ppm 17
水星(行星) -  总:  1.24 ppm 17
金星 -  总:  8.4 ppm 17
球粒陨石 - 总: 20 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 18

化合物

安全信息


材料安全数据表 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

了解更多信息

外部链接:

来源

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:13.
(2) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; p 889.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(16) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(17) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(18) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.