介绍

原子数: 6
组: 14 or IV A
原子量: 12.0107
期: 2
CAS号码: 7440-44-0

分类

金属
非金属
非金属
碱金属
碱土金属
过渡金属
硫族
卤素
惰性气体
镧系元素

稀土元素
铂族金属
超铀
没有稳定的同位素
固体
液体
加油站
固体 (预料到的)

描述 • 用途/功能

Carbon, an element of prehistoric discovery, is very widely distributed in nature. It is found in abundance in the sun, stars, comets, and atmospheres of most planets. Carbon in the form of microscopic diamonds is found in some meteorites. Natural diamonds are found in kimberlite of ancient volcanic “pipes,” such as found in South Africa, Arkansas, and elsewhere. Diamonds are now also being recovered from the ocean floor off the Cape of Good Hope. About 30% of all industrial diamonds used in the U.S. are now made synthetically. The energy of the sun and stars can be attributed at least in part to the well-known carbon-nitrogen cycle. Carbon is found free in nature in three allotropic forms: amorphous, graphite, and diamond. A fourth form, known as “white” carbon, is now thought to exist. Graphite is one of the softest known materials while diamond is one of the hardest. Graphite exists in two forms: alpha and beta. These have identical physical properties, except for their crystal structure. Naturally occurring graphites are reported to contain as much as 30% of the rhombohedral (beta) form, whereas synthetic materials contain only the alpha form. The hexagonal alpha type can be converted to the beta by mechanical treatment, and the beta form reverts to the alpha on heating it above 1000°C. In 1969 a new allotropic form of carbon was produced during the sublimation of pyrolytic graphite at low pressures. Under free-vaporization conditions above ~2550 K, “white” carbon forms as small transparent crystals on the edges of the basal planes of graphite. The interplanar spacings of “white” carbon are identical to those of carbon form noted in the graphitic gneiss from the Ries (meteoritic) Crater of Germany. “White” carbon is a transparent birefringent material. Little information is presently available about this allotrope. Of recent interest is the discovery of all-carbon molecules, known as “buckyballs” or fullerenes, which have a number of unusual properties. These interesting molecules, consisting of 60 or 70 carbon atoms linked together, seem capable of withstanding great pressure and trapping foreign atoms inside their network of carbon. They are said to be capable of magnetism and superconductivity and have potential as a nonlinear optical material. Buckyball films are reported to remain superconductive at temperatures as high as 45 K. In combination, carbon is found as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the earth and dissolved in all natural waters. It is a component of great rock masses in the form of carbonates of calcium (limestone), magnesium, and iron. Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are chiefly hydrocarbons. Carbon is unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. With hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements, it forms a very large number of compounds, carbon atom often being linked to carbon atom. There are close to ten million known carbon compounds, many thousands of which are vital to organic and life processes. Without carbon, the basis for life would be impossible. While it has been thought that silicon might take the place of carbon in forming a host of similar compounds, it is now not possible to form stable compounds with very long chains of silicon atoms. The atmosphere of Mars contains 96.2% CO2. Some of the most important compounds of carbon are carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon disulfide (CS2), chloroform (CHCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), acetylene (C2H2), benzene (C6H6), ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), and their derivatives. Carbon has thirteen isotopes. Natural carbon consists of 98.89% 12C and 1.11% 13C. In 1961 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry adopted the isotope carbon-12 as the basis for atomic weights. Carbon-14, an isotope with a half-life of 5715 years, has been widely used to date such materials as wood, archeological specimens, etc. 1

• "...a small amount of carbon in iron greatly improves its hardness." 2
• "37th most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 1.50 megatonnes." 3
• "Taste and odor control [in chemical water analysis]" 4
• "A pebble bed nuclear reactor is schematically depicted as a funnel-shaped container through which tennis-ball size "pebbles" of fuel are circulated. Each pebble is made of graphite and carbon and contains about 15,000 kernels of fuel. Each kernel has a core of uranium that is coated with a layer each of porous carbon, pyrolytic carbon (which is similar to graphite), silicon carbide, and then a second layer of pyrolytic carbon. These layers are used to moderate the speed of neutrons, helping to control the nuclear reactions of the fuel, and to provide a fireproof seal." 5

物理性能

Form:6 diamond
熔点:6
沸点:6
升华点:6 
三相点:6 
临界点:6 
Form:6 graphite
熔点:6
沸点:6
升华点:6 3825 °C = 4098.15 K = 6917 °F
三相点:6 4489 °C = 4762.15 K = 8112.2 °F at 10.3 MPa
临界点:6 
密度:7  3.513 (diamond)/2.2 (graphite) g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

电子组态

电子组态: [He] 2s2 2p2
块: p
最高占据能级: 2
价电子: 4

量子数:

n = 2
ℓ = 1
m = 0
ms = +½

粘接

电负性 (鲍林规模):8 2.55
Electropositivity (鲍林规模): 1.45
电子亲:9 1.262119 eV
氧化态: ±4
功函数:10 5.0 eV = 8.01E-19 J

电离能   eV 11  kJ/mol  
1 11.2603    1086.5
2 24.38332    2352.6
电离能   eV 11  kJ/mol  
3 47.8878    4620.5
4 64.4939    6222.7
电离能   eV 11  kJ/mol  
5 392.087    37830.6
6 489.99334    47277.2

热化学

比热: 0.709 J/g°C 12 = 8.516 J/mol°C = 0.169 cal/g°C = 2.035 cal/mol°C
导热系数: 129 (W/m)/K, 27°C 13
融合热: 
汽化热: 355.8 kJ/mol 14 = 29623.6 J/g
物质状态 生成焓 (ΔHf°)15 熵 (S°)15 吉布斯自由能 (ΔGf°)15
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 1.361 5.694424 0 0
(s) 0.4533 1.8966072 0.568 2.376512 0.6930 2.899512
(g) 171.291 716.681544 37.7597 157.9865848 160.442 671.289328

同位素

核素  16 半衰期 16 核自旋 16 结合能
10C 10.0168532(4) 19.290(12) s 0+ 61.12 MeV
11C 11.0114336(10) 20.334(24) min 3/2- 73.84 MeV
12C 12 稳定 0+ 92.16 MeV
13C 13.0033548378(10) 稳定 1/2- 97.44 MeV
14C 14.003241989(4) 5.70(3) x 103 years 0+ 105.51 MeV
15C 15.0105993(9) 2.449(5) s 1/2+ 107.06 MeV
16C 16.014701(4) 0.747(8) s 0+ 111.41 MeV
17C 17.022586(19) 193(5) ms (3/2+) 112.03 MeV
18C 18.02676(3) 92(2) ms 0+ 116.37 MeV
19C 19.03481(11) 46.2(23) ms (1/2+) 116.99 MeV
20C 20.04032(26) 16(3) ms [14(+6-5) ms] 0+ 119.47 MeV
21C 21.04934(54)# <30 ns (1/2+)# 119.16 MeV
22C 22.05720(97)# 6.2(13) ms [6.1(+14-12) ms] 0+ 119.78 MeV
8C 8.037675(25) 2.0(4) x 10-21 s [230(50) keV] 0+ 24.85 MeV
9C 9.0310367(23) 126.5(9) ms (3/2-) 39.07 MeV
值标记#不是纯粹从实验数据得出,但至少部分来自系统的发展趋势。旋转弱任务参数都包含在括号中。 16

反应

2 Al2O3 + 3 C → 4 Al + 3 CO2  17
Al2O3 + 3 C + 3 Cl2 → 2 AlCl3 + 3 CO  18
Bi2O3 (s) + 3 C (s graphite) → 3 Bi (s) + 3 CO (g) 19
2 C (s graphite) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 CO (g) 20
2 C (s graphite) + 2 H2 (g) + 1 O2 (g) → CH3COOH (ℓ acetic acid) 21
C12H22O11 (s sucrose) → 12 C (s graphite) + 11 H2O (g) 22
2 Ca3(PO4)2 (s beta) + 6 SiO2 (s quartz) + 10 C (s graphite) → P4 (g) + 6 CaSiO3 (ℓ) + 10 CO (g) 23
CaO (s) + 3 C (s) → CaC2 (s) + CO (g) 24
CF2Cl2 (g) + 2 Na2C2O4 (s) → 2 NaF (s) + 2 NaCl (s) + 4 CO2 (g) + 1 C (s) 25
CH4 (g methane) → C (g) + 4 H (g) 26
CO2 (g) + 1 C (s) → 2 CO (g) 27
2 CuO (s) + 1 C (s graphite) → 2 Cu (s) + CO2 (g) 28
2 Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 3 C (s graphite) → 4 Fe (s alpha) + 3 CO2 (g) 29
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 3 C (s graphite) → 2 Fe (s alpha) + 3 CO (g) 30
FeO (s) + 1 C (s graphite) → Fe (s alpha) + CO (g) 31
H2 (g) + 2 C (s graphite) + 1 N2 (g) → 2 HCN (g) 32
Na2SO4 (s) + 4 C (s graphite) → Na2S (s) + 4 CO (g) 33
SiO2 (s quartz) + 2 C (s graphite) → Si (ℓ) + 2 CO (g) 34
SiO2 (g) + 2 C (s graphite) + 2 Cl2 (g) → SiCl4 (g) + 2 CO (g) 35
2 TiO2 (s rutile) + 3 C (s graphite) + 4 Cl2 (g) → 2 TiCl4 (g) + CO2 (g) + 2 CO (g) 36
TiO2 (s rutile) + 1 C (s graphite) + 2 Cl2 (g) → TiCl4 (g) + CO2 (g) 37
W (s) + 1 C (s graphite) → WC (s) 38
ZnO + 1 C → Zn + CO  39
2 Ca3(PO4)2 (s beta) + 6 SiO2 (s quartz) + 10 C (s graphite) → P4 (g) + 6 CaSiO3 (s wollastonite) + 10 CO (g) 40
13 C (s graphite) + 3 Cr2O3 (s) → 2 Cr3C2 (s) + 9 CO (g) 41

丰富

地球 - 来源化合物: uncombined 42
地球 - 海水: 28 mg/L 43
地球 -  脆皮:  200 mg/kg = 0.02% 43
地球 -  岩石圈:  0.018% 44
地球 -  大气层:  0.01% 44
地球 -  总:  446 ppm 45
水星(行星) -  总:  5.1 ppm 45
金星 -  总:  468 ppm 45
宇宙 -  总:  0.46% 46
球粒陨石 - 总: 2000 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 47
人体 - 总: 23% 48

化合物

安全信息


材料安全数据表 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

了解更多信息

外部链接:

杂志:
(1) Perkins, Sid. Tiny Diamonds May Set Earlier Date for First Life. Science News, August 2, 2008, pp 13.
(2) Musser, George. A Large Lump of Coal. Scientific American, January 2010, pp 26.
(3) Castelvecchi, Davide. Origins Roundup: Carbon. Scientific American, September 2009, pp 83.
(4) Ehrenberg, Rachel. The Element Tin Flout's Carbon's Chemistry Rules. Science News, October 24, 2009, pp 13.
(5) Jenkins, Keith A. Graphene in High-Frequency Electronics. American Scientist, September-October 2012, pp 388-397.

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