BÉ RYL

Giới thiệu

Số nguyên tử: 4
Nhóm: 2 or II A
trọng lượng nguyên tử: 9.012182
Giai đoạn: 2
Số CAS: 7440-41-7

phân loại

Chalcogen
halogen
Khí hiếm
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Hiếm tử Trái Đất
Platinum Nhóm kim loại
Transuranium
Không có đồng vị ổn định
Chất rắn
Chất lỏng
Khí
Chất rắn (Dự đoán)

Sự miêu tả • Sử dụng / Chức năng

Discovered as the oxide by Vauquelin in beryl and in emeralds in 1798. The metal was isolated in 1828 by Wohler and by Bussy independently by the action of potassium on beryllium chloride. Beryllium is found in some 30 mineral species, the most important of which are bertrandite, beryl, chrysoberyl, and phenacite. Aquamarine and emerald are precious forms of beryl. Beryl (3BeO · Al2O3 · 6SiO2) and bertrandite (4BeO · 2SiO2 · H2O) are the most important commercial sources of the element and its compounds. Most of the metal is now prepared by reducing beryllium fluoride with magnesium metal. Beryllium metal did not become readily available to industry until 1957. The metal, steel gray in color, has many desirable properties. It is one of the lightest of all metals, and has one of the highest melting points of the light metals. Its modulus of elasticity is about one third greater than that of steel. It resists attack by concentrated nitric acid, has excellent thermal conductivity, and is nonmagnetic. It has a high permeability to X-rays, and when bombarded by alpha particles, as from radium or polonium, neutrons are produced in the ratio of about 30 neutrons/million alpha particles. At ordinary temperatures beryllium resists oxidation in air, although its ability to scratch glass is probably due to the formation of a thin layer of the oxide. Beryllium is used as an alloying agent in producing beryllium copper which is extensively used for springs, electrical contacts, spot-welding electrodes, and nonsparking tools. It has found application as a structural material for high-speed aircraft, missiles, spacecraft, and communication satellites. It is being used in the windshield frame, brake discs, support beams, and other structural components of the space shuttle. Because beryllium is relatively transparent to X-rays, ultra-thin Be-foil is finding use in X-ray lithography for reproduction of microminiature integrated circuits. Natural beryllium is made of 9Be and is stable. Eight other radioactive isotopes are known. Beryllium is used in nuclear reactors as a reflector or moderator for it has a low thermal neutron absorption cross section. It is used in gyroscopes, computer parts, and instruments where lightness, stiffness, and dimensional stability are required. The oxide has a very high melting point and is also used in nuclear work and ceramic applications. Beryllium and its salts are toxic and should be handled with the greatest of care. Beryllium and its compounds should not be tasted to verify the sweetish nature of beryllium (as did early experimenters). The metal, its alloys, and its salts can be handled safely if certain work codes are observed, but no attempt should be made to work with beryllium before becoming familiar with proper safeguards. Beryllium metal is available at a cost of about $2.50/g (99.5% pure). 1

Tính chất vật lý

Độ nóng chảy:2*  1287 °C = 1560.15 K = 2348.6 °F
Điểm sôi:2* 2471 °C = 2744.15 K = 4479.8 °F
điểm thăng hoa:2 
ba điểm:2 
Điểm cốt lõi:2 
Tỉ trọng:3  1.85 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

electron Cấu hình

electron Cấu hình: [He] 2s2
Khối: s
Cao nhất Chiếm Năng lượng Cấp: 2
Valence electron: 2

số lượng tử:

n = 2
ℓ = 0
m = 0
ms = -½

bonding

Độ âm điện (thang Pauling):4 1.57
Electropositivity (thang Pauling): 2.43
electron Affinity:5 not stable eV
Quá trình oxy hóa Hoa: +2
Chức năng làm việc:6 5.08 eV = 8.13816E-19 J

ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 7  kJ/mol  
1 9.3227    899.5
ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 7  kJ/mol  
2 18.21116    1757.1
ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 7  kJ/mol  
3 153.89661    14848.8
4 217.71865    21006.7

nhiệt hóa học

Nhiệt dung riêng: 1.825 J/g°C 8 = 16.447 J/mol°C = 0.436 cal/g°C = 3.931 cal/mol°C
Dẫn nhiệt: 200 (W/m)/K, 27°C 9
Nhiệt Fusion: 12.2 kJ/mol 10 = 1353.7 J/g
Nhiệt bay hơi: 292.4 kJ/mol 11 = 32445.0 J/g
Nhà nước Matter Entanpi của Formation (ΔHf°)12 entropy (S°)12 Gibbs miễn phí năng lượng (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 2.28 9.53952 0 0
(ℓ) 2.88 12.04992 3.95 16.5268 2.38 9.95792
(g) 77.5 324.26 32.55 136.1892 68.5 286.604

Đồng vị

Nuclide Khối lượng 13 Half-Life 13 spin hạt nhân 13 Ràng buộc năng lượng
10Be 10.0135338(4) 1.51(6)E+6 a 0+ 65.47 MeV
11Be 11.021658(7) 13.81(8) s 1/2+ 66.09 MeV
12Be 12.026921(16) 21.49(3) ms 0+ 69.51 MeV
13Be 13.03569(8) .5(1) ns 1/2+ 69.20 MeV
14Be 14.04289(14) 4.84(10) ms 0+ 70.75 MeV
15Be 15.05346(54)# <200 ns 68.57 MeV
16Be 16.06192(54)# <200 ns 0+ 69.19 MeV
5Be 5.04079(429)# (1/2+)# -0.68 MeV
6Be 6.019726(6) 5.0(3)E-21 s [0.092(6) MeV] 0+ 26.95 MeV
7Be 7.01692983(11) 53.22(6) d 3/2- 37.63 MeV
8Be 8.00530510(4) 6.7(17)E-17 s [6.8(17) eV] 0+ 56.50 MeV
9Be 9.0121822(4) ỔN ĐỊNH 3/2- 58.24 MeV
Các giá trị được đánh dấu # được không hoàn toàn xuất phát từ số liệu thực nghiệm, nhưng ít nhất một phần từ các xu hướng có hệ thống. Quay với lập luận phân yếu được kèm theo trong ngoặc đơn. 13

phong phú

trái đất - nguồn hợp chất: silicates 14
trái đất - Nước biển: 0.0000056 mg/L 15
trái đất -  vỏ trái đất:  2.8 mg/kg = 0.00028% 15
trái đất -  Tổng số:  45 ppb 16
Mercury (hành tinh) -  Tổng số:  34 ppb 16
sao Kim -  Tổng số:  47 ppb 16
chondrite - Tổng số: 0.69 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

Các hợp chất

Thông tin an toàn


Bảng dữ liệu an toàn vật liệu - ACI Alloys, Inc.

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Liện kết ngoại:

tạp chí:
(1) Irion, Robert. Origami Observatory. Scientific American, October 2010, pp 48-55.

nguồn

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:5.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(4) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.