ACTINIUM

pagpapakilala

Atomic Number: 89
grupo: 3 or III B
Atomic Timbang: 227
panahon: 7
CAS Number: 7440-34-8

pag-uuri

Chalcogen
halogen
Noble Gas
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Rare Earth Element
Platinum Group Metal
transuranium
No Stable Isotopes
matatag
likido
Gas
matatag (Nahulaang)

paglalarawan • Paggamit / Function

Discovered by Andre Debierne in 1899 and independently by F. Giesel in 1902. Occurs naturally in association with uranium minerals. Thirty two isotopes and isomers are now recognized. All are radioactive. Actinium-227, a decay product of uranium-235, is an alpha and beta emitter with a 21.77-year halflife. Its principal decay products are thorium-227 (18.72-day half-life), radium-223 (11.4-day half-life), and a number of short-lived products including radon, bismuth, polonium, and lead isotopes. In equilibrium with its decay products, it is a powerful source of alpha rays. Actinium metal has been prepared by the reduction of actinium fluoride with lithium vapor at about 1100 to 1300°C. The chemical behavior of actinium is similar to that of the rare earths, particularly lanthanum. Purified actinium comes into equilibrium with its decay products at the end of 185 days, and then decays according to its 21.77-year half-life. It is about 150 times as active as radium, making it of value in the production of neutrons. 1

pisikal na Katangian

Temperatura ng pagkatunaw:2*  1051 °C = 1324.15 K = 1923.8 °F
Punto ng pag-kulo:2* 3198 °C = 3471.15 K = 5788.4 °F
pangingimbabaw Point:2 
triple Point:2 
Critical Point:2 
densidad:3  10 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Electron Configuration

Electron Configuration:  *[Rn] 7s2 5f1
bloke: d
Pinakamataas Sinasakupan Level Energy: 7
valence electron: 

quantum Numbers:

n = 5
ℓ = 3
m = -3
ms = +½

bonding

electronegativity (Pauling scale):4 1.1
Electropositivity (Pauling scale): 2.9
Electron Affinity:5 0.35 eV
oksihenasyon States: +3

ionization Potensyal   eV 6  kJ/mol  
ionization Potensyal   eV 6  kJ/mol  
1 5.17    498.8
ionization Potensyal   eV 6  kJ/mol  
2 12.1    1167.5

termokimika

Tukoy Heat: 0.120 J/g°C 7 = 27.240 J/mol°C = 0.029 cal/g°C = 6.511 cal/mol°C
thermal kondaktibiti: 12 (W/m)/K, 27°C 8
Heat ng Fusion: 
Heat ng paggawa ng usok: 
State of Matter Entalpya ng Formation (ΔHf°)9 entropy (S°)9 Gibbs Libreng Enerhiya (ΔGf°)9
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 15.00 62.76 0 0
(g) 94.0 393.296
(s) 0.0 0 56.5 236.396
(g) 406.0 1698.704 188.1 787.0104 366.0 1531.344

isotopes

nuclide masa 10 Half-Life 10 nuclear Spin 10 Binding Energy
206Ac 206.01450(8) 25(7) ms (3+) 1,583.74 MeV
207Ac 207.01195(6) 31(8) ms [27(+11-6) ms] 9/2-# 1,591.82 MeV
208Ac 208.01155(6) 97(16) ms [95(+24-16) ms] (3+) 1,599.89 MeV
209Ac 209.00949(5) 92(11) ms (9/2-) 1,617.27 MeV
210Ac 210.00944(6) 350(40) ms 7+# 1,625.35 MeV
211Ac 211.00773(8) 213(25) ms 9/2-# 1,633.42 MeV
212Ac 212.00781(7) 920(50) ms 6+# 1,641.49 MeV
213Ac 213.00661(6) 731(17) ms (9/2-)# 1,649.56 MeV
214Ac 214.006902(24) 8.2(2) s (5+)# 1,657.63 MeV
215Ac 215.006454(23) 0.17(1) s 9/2- 1,665.70 MeV
216Ac 216.008720(29) 0.440(16) ms (1-) 1,673.77 MeV
217Ac 217.009347(14) 69(4) ns 9/2- 1,681.84 MeV
218Ac 218.01164(5) 1.08(9) μs (1-)# 1,680.60 MeV
219Ac 219.01242(5) 11.8(15) μs 9/2- 1,688.67 MeV
220Ac 220.014763(16) 26.36(19) ms (3-) 1,696.74 MeV
221Ac 221.01559(5) 52(2) ms 9/2-# 1,704.81 MeV
222Ac 222.017844(6) 5.0(5) s 1- 1,712.89 MeV
223Ac 223.019137(8) 2.10(5) min (5/2-) 1,720.96 MeV
224Ac 224.021723(4) 2.78(17) h 0- 1,719.71 MeV
225Ac 225.023230(5) 10.0(1) d (3/2-) 1,727.79 MeV
226Ac 226.026098(4) 29.37(12) h (1)(-#) 1,735.86 MeV
227Ac 227.0277521(26) 21.772(3) a 3/2- 1,743.93 MeV
228Ac 228.0310211(27) 6.15(2) h 3+ 1,742.68 MeV
229Ac 229.03302(4) 62.7(5) min (3/2+) 1,750.76 MeV
230Ac 230.03629(32) 122(3) s (1+) 1,758.83 MeV
231Ac 231.03856(11) 7.5(1) min (1/2+) 1,766.90 MeV
232Ac 232.04203(11) 119(5) s (1+) 1,765.65 MeV
233Ac 233.04455(32)# 145(10) s (1/2+) 1,773.73 MeV
234Ac 234.04842(43)# 44(7) s 1,781.80 MeV
235Ac 235.05123(38)# 40# s 1/2+# 1,780.55 MeV
236Ac 236.05530(54)# 2# min 1,788.62 MeV
Values ​​minarkahan # ang hindi pulos nagmula sa pang-eksperimentong data, ngunit hindi bababa sa bahagyang mula sistematikong uso. Spins na may mahinang assignment argumento ay nakapaloob sa panaklong. 10

kasaganaan

lupa -  pang-ibabaw:  0.00000000055 mg/kg = 0.000000000000055% 11

Impormasyong pangkaligtasan


Material Safety Data Sheet - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Para sa karagdagang impormasyon

panlabas na Links:

Journals:
(1) A. Debierne, C. R. Acad. Sci. 129, 593 (1899)
(2) F.O. Geisel, Ber. 55, 3608 (1902)
(3) J.G. Stites, Jr. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 237 (1955)
(4) J.D. Farr et al., J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 18, 42 (1961)
(5) O. Hahn, Ber. 40, 1462 (1907)

Pinagmumulan

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:3.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(4) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 5:5.
(12) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.