ÁCIDO NÍTRICO - (7697-37-2)

Introdução

Nome: nitric acid
* IUPAC
Número CAS: 7697-37-2
Fórmula química: HNO3
Massa molar: 63.01284 g
Percentual de massa: H 1.5995 %; N 22.228 %; O 76.172 % 

Classificação

Usos / Função

• "Manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Pharmaceutic acid (acidifier)." 1

• "13th most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 8.0 megatonnes." 2

• "13th most produced chemical in the United States - 14.20 billion pounds" 3

• "Nitric acid is used to make plastics including nylon and polyurethane. The largest use of nitric acid, however, is in the production of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3. Ammonium nitrate is used as a nitrogen fertilizer and in the manufactureof explosive mixtures (for example, a fuel oil-ammonium nitrate mixture is used as a mining explosive). Nitric acid is itself used to manufacture explosive compounds. Nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate), C3H5(NO3)3, is prepared from the reaction of nitric acid and glycerol, C3H5(OH)3, which can be made from fats or petroleum." 4

• "A strong corrosive acid prepared from sulfuric acid and a nitrate. It is used in the manufacture of explosives and dyes and as a coagulant in testing urine for albumin." 5

Propriedades físicas

Ponto de fusão:*
-41.6°C 6 = 231.55 K = -42.88°F
Ponto de ebulição:*
83°C 6 = 356.15 K = 181.4°F
Densidade (g/cm3):
1.55 at room temperature/pressure 6
* - 1 atm pressure

Solubilidade

qualitativo:
solúvel:  • 6
reacts:  6

Colagem

Termoquímica

ΔHf° (ℓ): -41.40 kcal/mol 7 = -173.22 kJ/mol
ΔHf° (g): -32.28 kcal/mol 7 = -135.06 kJ/mol
S° (ℓ): 37.19 cal/(mol•K) 8 = 155.60 J/(mol•K)
S° (g): 63.64 cal/(mol•K) 8 = 266.27 J/(mol•K)
ΔGf° (ℓ): -19.10 kcal/mol 9 = -79.91 kJ/mol
ΔGf° (g): -17.87 kcal/mol 9 = -74.77 kJ/mol

reações

2 AgNO3 (aq) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → Ag2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) 10
3 As2S3 (s) + 10 HNO3 (aq) + 4 H2O (ℓ) → 6 H3AsO4 (aq) + 10 NO (g) + 9 S (s) 11
C3H5(OH)3 + 3 HNO3 → C3H5(NO3)3 + 3 H2O  12
C6H6 (ℓ) + 1 HNO3 (ℓ) → C6H5NO2 (ℓ) + H2O (ℓ) 13
3 Cu (s) + 8 HNO3 (aq) → 3 Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO (g) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 14
Cu (s) + 4 HNO3 (aq) → Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 15
3 CuS (s) + 8 HNO3 (aq) → 8 NO (g) + 3 CuSO4 (aq) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 16
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 6 HNO3 (aq) → 2 Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 17
2 HNO3 (aq) + 1 Na2CO3 (aq) → 2 NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 18
KNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → KHSO4 (s) + HNO3 (g) 19
2 NaNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → Na2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (ℓ) 20
2 NaNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → Na2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (g) 21
Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 C4H8N2O2 (s) → Ni(C4H7N2O2)2 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) 22
NiCO3 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) → Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 23
NiS (s) + 4 HNO3 (aq) → Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + S (s) + 2 NO2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 24
3 NO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → 2 HNO3 (aq) + NO (g) 25
Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → PbSO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) 26
PbCO3 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) → Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 26
3 Sn (s) + 16 HNO3 (aq) → 3 Sn(NO3)4 (aq) + 4 NO (g) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 27
14 HNO3 (aq) + 3 Cu2O (s) → 6 Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO (g) + 7 H2O (ℓ) 
4 Zn (s) + 10 HNO3 (aq) → 4 Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + NH4NO3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 
3 As (s alpha-gray) + 5 HNO3 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 3 H3AsO4 (aq) + 5 NO (g) 
3 Cl2 (g) + 5 AgNO3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) → HClO3 (aq) + 5 HNO3 (aq) + 5 AgCl (s) 
6 HNO3 (aq) + 5 H2C2O4 (aq) + 2 KMnO4 (aq) → 10 CO2 (g) + 2 Mn(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 KNO3 (aq) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 
6 HNO3 (aq) + S (s rhombic) → 6 NO2 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 

Para maiores informações

Fontes

(1) - The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 13th ed.; Budavari, S.; O'Neil, M.J.; Smith, A.; Heckelman, P. E.; Kinneary, J. F., Eds.; Merck & Co.: Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2001; entry 6608.
(2) - Chem. Eng. News, 1995, 73 (26), p 39
(3) - Reisch, Mark S.; Top 50 Chemicals Production Turned Back Up in 1987. Chemical & Engineering News, April 11, 1988, pp 30-33.
(4) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 219.
(5) - Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 18th ed.; F. A. David Company: Philadelphia, PA, 1997; p 22.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4-73.
(7) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(8) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(9) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(10) - Zumdahl, Steven and Zumdahl, Susan A. Chemistry 9th ed.; Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2014; p 131.
(11) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Metals & Metalloids; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; pg. 96.
(12) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 219.
(13) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 138.
(14) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 135.
(15) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 341.
(16) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 360.
(17) - Zumdahl, Steven and Zumdahl, Susan A. Chemistry 9th ed.; Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2014; p 131.
(18) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 137.
(19) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 218.
(20) - Kotz, John C., Treichel, Paul, and Weaver, Gabriela. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 6th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2006; p 166.
(21) - Kotz, John C. and Treichel, Paul. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 4th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 1999; p 173.
(22) - Kotz, John C., Treichel, Paul, and Weaver, Gabriela. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 6th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2006; p 161.
(23) - Kotz, John C. and Treichel, Paul. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 4th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 1999; p 173.
(24) - Kotz, John C., Treichel, Paul, and Weaver, Gabriela. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 6th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2006; p 161.
(25) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 211, 219.
(26) - Kotz, John C., Treichel, Paul, and Weaver, Gabriela. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 6th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2006; p 160.
(27) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Metals & Metalloids; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; pg. 49.