MORPHIUM - (57-27-2)

Einführung

Name: morphine; (5α,6α)-7,8-didehydro- 4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol
* IUPAC
CAS-Nummer: 57-27-2
Chemische Formel: C17H19NO3
Molmasse: 285.33766 g
Massenprozent: C 71.557 %; H 6.7116 %; N 4.9088 %; O 16.821 % 
Isomers:  piperine

Einstufung

Verwendung / Funktion

• "Morphine is an alkaloid present in opium, and is probably the most effective drug for the relief of extreme pain...Because of the adverse habit-forming characteristic of morphine, certain synthetic substitutes have been sought." 1

• "Morphine ans its relatives, widely used as painkillers in developed countries, can be fairly expensive and are often taken for extended periods of time." 2

• "Analgesic...Morphine relieves pain, but it also constipates and suppresses the urge to cough...Morphine was widely used during the American Civil War both for relieving pain of battle wounds and for controlling diarrhea...The more potent opioid analgesics - morphine, codeine, and heroin - moderate the brain's perception of pain by binding to receptor sites on neurons in the central nervous system." 3

• "Analgesic (narcotic), preanesthetic, antitussive, antiperistaltic." 4

Physikalische Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:*
255°C 5 = 528.15 K = 491°F


* - 1 atm pressure

Löslichkeit

qualitativ:
sehr leicht löslich:  • • • 5

Kleben

Doppelbindungen: 4
Dreifachbindungen: 0
Sigma Bonds: 44
Pi Bonds: 4
Gesamt: 48
Carboxygruppen: 0
HYDROXYLGRUPPEN: 2
Hybridisation: single bonded carbons, oxygens, and nitrogens are sp3; double bonded carbons are sp2

Für mehr Informationen

Quellen

(1) - Estok, George K. Organic Chemistry: A Short Text; W.B. Saunders: Philadelphia, 1959; p 241.
(2) - Ehrenberg, Rachel. Chemists Pin Down Poppy's Tricks for Producing Narcotic Painkiller. Science News, April 10, 2010, p 5.
(3) - Suchocki, John. Conceptual Chemistry: Understanding Our World of Atoms and Molecules; Addison Wesley: San Francisco, California, 2001; pp 438, 476.
(4) - The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 13th ed.; Budavari, S.; O'Neil, M.J.; Smith, A.; Heckelman, P. E.; Kinneary, J. F., Eds.; Merck & Co.: Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2001; entry 6300.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 3-211.