HYDROQUINONE - (123-31-9)

Введение

имя: hydroquinone; quinol; benzene-1,4-diol
* IUPAC
Количество CAS: 123-31-9
Химическая формула: C6H6O2 or C6H4(OH)2
Молярная масса: 110.11064 g
Массовая доля: C 65.447 %; H 5.4923 %; O 29.060 % 
Изомеры:  2-acetylfuran

классификация

Использование / функции

• "The bombardier beetle has a fascinating defense mechanism based on the oxidation of an organic compound with hydrogen peroxide. Within the beetle is a sac containing a mixture of the compound (hydroquinone) and hydrogen peroxide. An enzyme initiates the reaction, which is so exothermic that it causes the liquid to boil. The boiling liquid is then expelled at the beetle's enemies." 1

• "As photographic reducer and developer; as reagent in the determination of small quantities of phosphate; as antioxidant. Depigmentor." 2

Физические свойства

Температура плавления:*
172.3°C 3 = 445.45 K = 342.14°F
Точка кипения:*
287°C 3 = 560.15 K = 548.6°F
плотность (g/cm3):
1.328 at 15°C 3
1.332 at 15°C 2
* - 1 atm pressure

Растворимость

качественный:
растворимый:  • 3
хорошо растворим:  • 3

Связующие

Двойные связи: 3
тройные связи: 0
Сигма облигации: 14
Облигации Pi: 3
Всего: 17
карбоксильных групп: 0
гидроксильные группы: 2

термохимия

ΔHf° (s): -87.12 kcal/mol = -364.5 kJ/mol 4
ΔHf° (g): -63.41 kcal/mol = -265.3 kJ/mol 4
The heat of combustion is the amount of heat released when one mole of a substance undergoes combustion according to the general reaction equation:
CxHyOz + 0.25(4x+y-2z) O2 (g) → x CO2 (g) + 0.5y H2O (ℓ)

ΔHcomb° (s): -682.12740917782 kcal = -2854.05 kJ
ΔHcomb° (g): -705.836778202677 kcal = -2953.25 kJ

Информация по технике безопасности

NFPA 704 Ratings:
Health: 2 - Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
Flammability: 1 - Must be heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93°C (200°F).
Reactivity: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water.

Чтобы получить больше информации

источники

(1) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 536-537.
(2) - The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 13th ed.; Budavari, S.; O'Neil, M.J.; Smith, A.; Heckelman, P. E.; Kinneary, J. F., Eds.; Merck & Co.: Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2001; entry 4833.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 3-43.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 5-44.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 5-44.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 5-44.