HYDROQUINONE - (123-31-9)

Wprowadzenie

Nazwa: hydroquinone; quinol; benzene-1,4-diol
* IUPAC
Numer CAS: 123-31-9
Wzór chemiczny: C6H6O2 or C6H4(OH)2
Masa cząsteczkowa: 110.11064 g
Procent Mass: C 65.447 %; H 5.4923 %; O 29.060 % 
izomery:  2-acetylfuran

Klasyfikacja

• organiczny • aromatyczny • fenol

Zastosowania / Funkcja

• "The bombardier beetle has a fascinating defense mechanism based on the oxidation of an organic compound with hydrogen peroxide. Within the beetle is a sac containing a mixture of the compound (hydroquinone) and hydrogen peroxide. An enzyme initiates the reaction, which is so exothermic that it causes the liquid to boil. The boiling liquid is then expelled at the beetle's enemies." 1

• "As photographic reducer and developer; as reagent in the determination of small quantities of phosphate; as antioxidant. Depigmentor." 2

Właściwości fizyczne

Temperatura topnienia:*
172.3°C 3 = 445.45 K = 342.14°F
Temperatura wrzenia:*
287°C 3 = 560.15 K = 548.6°F
Gęstość (g/cm3):
1.328 at 15°C 3
1.332 at 15°C 2
* - 1 atm pressure

Rozpuszczalność

Jakościowy:
rozpuszczalny:  • 3
bardzo dobrze rozpuszczalny:  • 3

klejenie

wiązań podwójnych: 3
wiązań potrójnych: 0
wiązanie sigma: 14
Obligacje Pi: 3
Całkowity: 17
karboksylowe: 0
grup hydroksylowych: 2

Termochemia

ΔHf° (s): -87.12 kcal/mol = -364.5 kJ/mol 4
ΔHf° (g): -63.41 kcal/mol = -265.3 kJ/mol 4
The heat of combustion is the amount of heat released when one mole of a substance undergoes combustion according to the general reaction equation:
CxHyOz + 0.25(4x+y-2z) O2 (g) → x CO2 (g) + 0.5y H2O (ℓ)

ΔHcomb° (s): -682.12740917782 kcal = -2854.05 kJ
ΔHcomb° (g): -705.836778202677 kcal = -2953.25 kJ

Informacje dotyczące bezpieczeństwa

NFPA 704 Ratings:
Health: 2 - Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
Flammability: 1 - Must be heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93°C (200°F).
Reactivity: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water.

Po więcej informacji

źródła

(1) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 536-537.
(2) - The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 13th ed.; Budavari, S.; O'Neil, M.J.; Smith, A.; Heckelman, P. E.; Kinneary, J. F., Eds.; Merck & Co.: Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2001; entry 4833.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 3-43.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 5-44.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 5-44.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 5-44.