PHENOL* - (108-95-2)

Introdução

Nome: phenol*; hydroxybenzene; carbolic acid
* IUPAC
Número CAS: 108-95-2
Fórmula química: C6H6O or C6H5OH
Massa molar: 94.11124 g
Estado da matéria: clear crystals
Percentual de massa: C 76.573 %; H 6.4260 %; O 17.000 % 

Classificação

• orgânico • aromático • fenol

Usos / Função

• "The primary use for phenol is as an intermediary chemical, a compound used in the synthesis of other chemicals. About 40 percent of all the phenol produced in the United States is used to make bisphenol A, while a similar amount is used in the production of a variety of polymers, such as phenol-formaldehyde plastics and nylon-6. The third largest application of phenol is in the manufacture of a host of other chemicals, xylene and aniline being the most important.

Phenol is no longer widely used as an antiseptic, partly because more efficient substances have been developed and partly because phenol may cause irritation and burning of the skin after prolonged use. The compound is still used in low concentration in a number of health and medical applications, however, as in antipruritics (substances that reduce or prevent itching), cauterizing agents (substances for the burning of tissue by heat or chemicals), topical anesthetics (anesthetics used on the skin), thorat sprays and lozenges (such as Chloraseptic®, Ambesol®, and Cepastat®), and in skin ointments (such as PRID salve® and CamphoPhenique® lotion). Phenol is also used in combination with slaked lime (calcium hydroxide; Ca(OH)2) and other materials as a disinfectant for toilets, stables, cesspools, floors, and drains.

Phenol is a highly corrosive material that can cause serious burns to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. It is toxic if ingested. The compound can enter the body in a variety of ways, such as absorption through the skin, inhalation of vapors, and ingestion of the solid compound or its solutions. Symptoms of phenol poisoning include nausea, vomiting, headache, respiratory failure, muscular weakness, severe depression, collapse, coma, and death. Skin exposure may cause redness, blisters, and/or minor to severe chemical burns. Ingestion of phenol may cause damage to the central nervous system, lungs, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen. The concentration of phenol in most consumer and industrial products is low enough to not cause health problems for users. However, prolonged exposure to such products or their overuse may result in serious health risks. Handling of the pure compound or concentrated solutions of phenol also involves health hazards." 1

• "As a general disinfectant, either in sol[utio]n or mixed with slaked lime, etc., for toilets, stables, cesspools, floors, drains, etc,; for the manuf[acture] of colorless or light-colored artificial resins, many medical and industrial organic comp[oun]ds and dyes; as a reagent in chemical analyses. Pharmaceutic aid (preservative). Aqueous sol[utio]n as topical anesthetic; topical anesthetic; topical antipruritic. Antiseptic caustic. Topical anesthetic in pruritic skin conditions. Has been used internally and externally as an antiseptic." 2

• "...an organic compound used in some cleaners" 3

Propriedades físicas

Ponto de fusão:*
40.9°C 4 = 314.05 K = 105.62°F
42°C 5 = 315.15 K = 107.6°F
Ponto de ebulição:*
181.8°C 4 = 454.95 K = 359.24°F
180°C 5 = 453.15 K = 356°F
Densidade (g/cm3):
1.0545 at 45°C 4
* - 1 atm pressure

Solubilidade

qualitativo:
ligeiramente solúvel:  5
solúvel:  • • 5

Colagem

ligações duplas: 3
ligações triplas: 0
Sigma Bonds: 13
Pi Bonds: 3
Total: 16
Grupos carboxilo: 0
grupos hidroxilo: 1
hibridização: carbons are sp2; oxygen is sp3

Termoquímica

ΔHf° (s): -39.44 kcal/mol 6 = -165.02 kJ/mol
ΔHf° (g): -23.03 kcal/mol 6 = -96.36 kJ/mol
S° (s): 34.42 cal/(mol•K) 7 = 144.01 J/(mol•K)
S° (g): 75.43 cal/(mol•K) 7 = 315.60 J/(mol•K)
ΔGf° (s): -12.05 kcal/mol 8 = -50.42 kJ/mol
ΔGf° (g): -7.86 kcal/mol 8 = -32.89 kJ/mol
The heat of combustion is the amount of heat released when one mole of a substance undergoes combustion according to the general reaction equation:
CxHyOz + 0.25(4x+y-2z) O2 (g) → x CO2 (g) + 0.5y H2O (ℓ)

ΔHcomb° (s): -729.805 kcal = -3053.53304 kJ
ΔHcomb° (g): -746.215 kcal = -3122.19248 kJ

Para maiores informações

Fontes

(1) - Schlager, Neil, Weisblatt, Jayne, Newton, David E., and Montney, Charles B. Chemical Compounds Vol. 2; Thomson-Gale: Detroit, MI, 2006; p 562.
(2) - The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 13th ed.; Budavari, S.; O'Neil, M.J.; Smith, A.; Heckelman, P. E.; Kinneary, J. F., Eds.; Merck & Co.: Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2001; entry 7323.
(3) - Kotz, John C. and Purcell, Keith F. Chemlstry and Chemlcal Reactivity, 2nd ed.; CBS College Publishing: New York. NY, 1987; p 98.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 3-252.
(5) - Shriner, Ralph L., Fuson, Reynold C., and Curtin, David Y. The Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds, 4th ed.; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1962; p 325.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:88.
(7) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:88.
(8) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:88.