WATER - (7732-18-5)

Introduction

Name: water; dihydrogen monoxide; hydrogen hydroxide
* IUPAC
CAS Number: 7732-18-5
Chemical Formula: H2O or HOH
Molar Mass: 18.01528 g
Mass Percent: H 11.189 %; O 88.810 % 

Classification

• inorganic

Uses/Function

• "In the hydrological cycle, water evaporates from rivers, lakes and oceans and returns as rain on the land, ensuring a continuous supply of life-sustaining fresh water." 1

• "...the vibrational energy of some molecules is increased by the absorption of infrared radiation. Carbon dioxide and water absorb infrared radiation in this way. They absorb some of the infrared radiation emitted by the earth and prevent it from returning to space, thus keeping the temperatures of the troposphere and the earth's surface higher than they otherwise would be. It has been calculated that if there were no CO2 and H2O in the atmosphere, the average surface temperature of the earth would be -30ºC rather than +15ºC." 2

• "The water cycle consists of the evaporation of sea water by solar heat and its subsequent condensation as rain or snow. Water containing wastre products is eventually returned to the sea by way of streams and rivers. In this way the supply of fresh water necessary for land-based life is maintained." 3

• "The unusually large heat of vaporization of water has an important effect on the earth's weather. Evaporation of the surface waters absorbs over 30% of the solar energy reaching the earth's surface. This energy is released when the water vapor condenses, and thunderstorms and hurricanes may result. In the process, the waters of the earth are circulated and the freshwater sources are replenished. This natural cycle of water from the oceans to freshwater sources and its return to the ocean is called the hydrologic cycle.

...The exceptionally large heat capacity of bodies of water has an important moderating effect on the surrounding temperature by warming cold air masses in winter and cooling warm air masses in summer. Worldwide, the oceans are most important, but even inland lakes have a pronounced effect. For example, the Great Lakes give Detroit a more moderate winter than cities that are somewhat farther south but have no lakes nearby.

The fact that ice is less dense than water means that it forms on top of the liquid when freezing occurs. This has far-reaching effects, both for weather and for aquatic animals. When ice forms on a body of water, it insulates the underlying water from the cold air and limits further freezing. Fish depend on this for winter survival.

The solvent properties of water are also unusual. Water is both a polar substance and a hydrogen-bonding molecule. As a result, water dissolves many substances, including ionic and polar compounds. These properties make water the premier solvent, biologically and industrially.

As a result of the solvent properties of water, the naturally occurring liquid always contains dissolved materials, particularly ionic substances. Hard water contains certain metal ions, such as Ca2+ and Mg2+. These ions react with soaps, which are sodium salts of stearic acid and similar organic acids, to produce a curdy precipitate of calcium and magnesium salts. This precipitate adheres to clothing and bathtubs (as bathtub ring). Removing Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions from hard water is referred to as water softening.

Water is often softened by ion exchange. Ion exchange is a process whereby a water solution is passed through a column of material that replaces one kind of ion in solution with another kind. Home and commercial water softeners contain cation-exchange resins, which are insoluble macromolecular substances (substances consisting of giant molecules) to which negatively charged groups are chemically bonded. The negative charges are counterbalanced by ions such as Na+. When hard water containing the Ca2+ ion passes through a column of this resin, the Na+ ion in the resin is replaced by the Ca2+ ion...The water passing through the column now contains Na+ in places of Ca2+ and has been softened. Once the resin has been completely converted to the calcium salt, it can be regenerated by flushing the column with a concentrated solution of NaCl to reverse the previous reaction." 4

Physical Properties

Melting Point:*
0.00°C 5 = 273.15 K = 32°F
Boiling Point:*
100.00°C 5 = 373.15 K = 212°F

* - 1 atm pressure

Solubility

Qualitative:
soluble:  • 6

Bonding

Double Bonds: 0
Triple Bonds: 0
Sigma Bonds: 2
Pi Bonds: 0
Total: 2
Carboxyl Groups: 0
Hydroxyl Groups: 0
Geometry: bent
Hybridization: oxygen is sp3
Bonding: polar covalent
Ionic Character: 37.58 %

Thermochemistry

ΔHf° (ℓ): -68.315 kcal/mol 7 = -285.83 kJ/mol
ΔHf° (g): -57.796 kcal/mol 7 = -241.82 kJ/mol
S° (ℓ): 16.71 cal/(mol•K) 8 = 69.91 J/(mol•K)
S° (g): 45.104 cal/(mol•K) 8 = 188.72 J/(mol•K)
ΔGf° (ℓ): -56.687 kcal/mol 9 = -237.18 kJ/mol
ΔGf° (g): -54.634 kcal/mol 9 = -228.59 kJ/mol

Reactions

(CN)2 (g cyanogen) + 4 H2O (ℓ) → H2C2O4 (aq) + 2 NH3 (g) 10
(NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 11
Ag2O (s) + 2 C10H10N4SO2 (s) → 2 AgC10H9N4SO2 (s) + H2O (ℓ) 12
4 Al (s) + 3 O2 (g) + 6 H2O (ℓ) → 4 Al(OH)3 (s) 13
3 Al (s) + 3 NH4ClO4 (s) → Al2O3 (s alpha-corundum) + AlCl3 (s) + 3 NO (g) + 6 H2O (g) 14
2 Al (s) + 2 NaOH (aq) + 6 H2O (ℓ) → 2 Na[Al(OH)4] (aq) + 3 H2 (g) 15
Al(OH)3 (s) + 3 HCl (aq) → AlCl3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 16
2 Al(OH)3 (s) → Al2O3 (s) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 17
Al2O3 (s alpha-corundum) + 6 H+1 (aq) → 2 Al+3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 18
Al2O3 (s alpha-corundum) + 3 H2O (ℓ) + 2 OH-1 (aq) → 2 Al(OH)4-1 (aq) 18
AlCl3 (s) + 3 H2O (ℓ) → Al(OH)3 (s) + 3 HCl (aq) 19
3 As2S3 (s) + 10 HNO3 (aq) + 4 H2O (ℓ) → 6 H3AsO4 (aq) + 10 NO (g) + 9 S (s) 20
B2H6 (g) + 6 H2O (ℓ) → 6 H2 (g) + 2 H3BO3 (s) 21
B2O3 (s) + 6 NaOH (aq) → 2 Na3BO3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 22
2 B5H9 (ℓ) + 12 O2 (g) → 5 B2O3 (s) + 9 H2O (g) 23
Ba(IO3)2•H2O (s) → Ba+2 (aq) + 2 IO3-1 (aq) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 
Ba(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4Cl (s) → BaCl2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ba(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4Br (s) → BaBr2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ba(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4NO3 (s) → Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ba(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4F (s) → BaI2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ba(OH)2•8H2O (s) + 1 NH4SCN (s) → Ba(SCN)2 (s) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 NH3 (g) 24
Ba(OH)2•8H2O (s) → Ba+2 (aq) + 2 OH-1 (aq) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 
BCl3 (g) + 3 H2O (ℓ) → H3BO3 (s) + 3 HCl (g) 25
BF3 (g) + 3 H2O (ℓ) → 3 HF (aq) + H3BO3 (aq) 26
C (s graphite) + 2 H2O (g) → CO2 (g) + 2 H2 (g) 27
C (s graphite) + 1 H2O (g) → CO (g) + H2 (g) 28
C12H22O11 (s sucrose) + 12 O2 (g) → 12 CO2 (g) + 11 H2O (g) 
C12H22O11 (s sucrose) → 12 C (s graphite) + 11 H2O (g) 29
2 C12H26 (ℓ 1-dodecane) + 37 O2 (g) → 24 CO2 (g) + 26 H2O (g) 30
C2H2 (g acetylene) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + H2O (g) 
C2H4 (g ethylene) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 31
C2H4 (g ethylene) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) 
2 C2H4O (g ethylene oxide) + 5 O2 (g) → 4 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 32
C2H4O (g ethylene oxide) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → HOCH2CH2OH (l ethylene glycol) 32
C2H5OH (ℓ ethanol) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 3 H2O (g) 33
C2H5OH (ℓ ethanol) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 3 H2O (g) 
2 C2H5SH (ℓ) + 9 O2 (g) → 4 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (g) + 2 SO2 (g) 34
2 C2H6 (g ethane) + 7 O2 (g) → 4 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (ℓ) 35
C2H6 (g ethane) + 4 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 3 H2O (g) 
2 C2H6O2 (ℓ ethylene glycol) + 5 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 36
C2H6O2 (ℓ ethylene glycol) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 3 H2O (g) 
4 C3H5(NO3)3 (ℓ) → 6 N2 (g) + 10 H2O (g) + 12 CO2 (g) + 1 O2 (g) 37
C3H5(OH)3 + 3 HNO3 → C3H5(NO3)3 + 3 H2O  37
2 C3H6 (g) + 2 NH3 (g) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 C3H3N (g) + 6 H2O (g) 38
C3H8 (g propane) + 5 O2 (g) → 3 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 39
C3H8 (g propane) + 5 O2 (g) → 3 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (g) 40
C3H8 (g propane) + 3 H2O (g) → 3 CO (g) + 7 H2 (g) 41
2 Eu (s) + 6 H2O (g) → 2 Eu(OH)3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g) 
2 C45H86O6 (s glyceryl trimyristate) + 127 O2 (g) → 90 CO2 (g) + 86 H2O (ℓ) 42
2 C4H10 (g n-butane) + 13 O2 (g) → 8 CO2 (g) + 10 H2O (g) 43
C4H10 (g n-butane) + 7 O2 (g) → 4 CO2 (g) + 5 H2O (g) 
C5H10O5 (s arabinose) + 5 O2 (g) → 5 CO2 (g) + 5 H2O (ℓ) 44
C5H12 (ℓ) + 8 O2 (g) → 5 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (ℓ) 45
C5H12 (ℓ pentane) + 8 O2 (g) → 5 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (g) 
C6H10O5 (s) + 6 O2 (g) → 6 CO2 (g) + 5 H2O (g) 46
C6H12O6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) → 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (ℓ) 47
2 C6H14 (ℓ) + 19 O2 (g) → 12 CO2 (g) + 14 H2O (g) 
C6H5CH3 (ℓ toluene) + 9 O2 (g) → 7 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (g) 48
C6H5CH3 (ℓ toluene) + 9 O2 (g) → 7 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 49
2 C6H5Cl chlorobenzene + 1 C2HOCl3 chloral → C14H9Cl5 DDT + H2O  50
2 C6H6 (ℓ benzene) + 15 O2 (g) → 12 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (ℓ) 51
2 C6H6 (ℓ benzene) + 15 O2 (g) → 12 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (g) 
C6H6 (ℓ) + 1 HNO3 (ℓ) → C6H5NO2 (ℓ) + H2O (ℓ) 52
2 C8H18 (g) + 25 O2 (g) → 16 CO2 (g) + 18 H2O (ℓ) 53
Ca (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → Ca(OH)2 (aq) + H2 (g) 54
Ca(HCO3)2 (aq) + 1 Ca(OH)2 (aq) → 2 CaCO3 (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 55
Ca(IO3)2•6H2O (s) → Ca+2 (aq) + 2 IO3-1 (aq) + 6 H2O (ℓ) 
3 Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2 H3PO4 (aq) → 6 H2O (ℓ) + Ca3(PO4)2 (s) 56
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 1 CO2 (g) → CaCO3 (s) + H2O (ℓ) 57
CaC2 (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → Ca(OH)2 (s) + C2H2 (g) 58
CaC2O4•H2O (s) → Ca+2 (aq) + C2O4-2 (aq) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 
CaCO3 (s) + 1 CO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → Ca+2 (aq) + 2 HCO3-1 (aq) 59
CaCO3 (s) + 1 H2C2O4 (aq) → CaC2O4 (s) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 60
CaCO3 (s) + 2 HCl (aq) → CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 61
CaO (s) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → Ca(OH)2 (s) 62
CaO (s) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → Ca+2 (aq) + 2 OH-1 (aq) 63
CaO (s) + 2 NH4Cl (s) → 2 NH3 (g) + H2O (g) + 1 CaCl2 (s) 64
CaSiO3 (s) + 6 HF (g) → SiF4 (g) + CaF2 (s) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 65
CaSiO3 (s) + 6 HF (aq) → SiF4 (g) + CaF2 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 66
CaSO3•0.5H2O (s) → Ca+2 (aq) + SO3-2 (aq) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 
CaSO4•2H2O (s) → Ca+2 (aq) + SO4-2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 
CdC2O4•3H2O (s) → Cd+2 (aq) + C2O4-2 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 
CdCl2 (aq) + 1 (NH4)2CS (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → CdS (s) + CO2 (g) + 2 NH4Cl (aq) 67
CH3COOH (ℓ acetic acid) + 2 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 68
CH3COOH (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → CH3COONa (aq) + H2O (ℓ) 69
CH3COOH (ℓ acetic acid) + 2 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) 
4 CH3NH2 (g) + 9 O2 (g) → 4 CO2 (g) + 10 H2O (g) + 2 N2 (g) 70
CH4 (g methane) + 2 O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 71
CH4 (g methane) + 2 O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) 72
CH4 (g methane) + 1 H2O (g) → CO (g) + 3 H2 (g) 73
CH4 (g methane) + 2 O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) 
2 CHCl3 (aq) + 1 O2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 2 CO2 (g) + 6 HCl (aq) 74
CO (g) + 3 H2 (g) → CH4 (g) + H2O (g) 75
Co(IO3)2•2H2O (s) → Co+2 (aq) + 2 IO3-1 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 
CO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → H2CO3 (aq) 76
5 CO2 (g) + 55 NH4+1 (aq) + 76 O2 (g) → C5H7O2N (s bacterial tissue) + 54 NO2-1 (aq) + 52 H2O (ℓ) + 109 H+1 (aq) 77
Cr2O3 (s) + 3 H2S (g) → Cr2S3 (s) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 78
3 Cu (s) + 8 HNO3 (aq) → 3 Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO (g) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 79
Cu (s) + 2 H2SO4 (ℓ) → CuSO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 1 SO2 (g) 80
Cu (s) + 4 HNO3 (aq) → Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 80
Cu(IO3)2•H2O (s) → Cu+2 (aq) + 2 IO3-1 (aq) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 
3 CuS (s) + 8 HNO3 (aq) → 8 NO (g) + 3 CuSO4 (aq) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 81
3 Fe (s alpha) + 4 H2O (g) → Fe3O4 (s magnetite) + 4 H2 (g) 82
4 Fe (s) + 3 O2 (g) + 6 H2O (ℓ) → 4 Fe(OH)3 (s) 83
3 Fe(OH)2 (s) → Fe3O4 (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 1 H2 (g) 84
2 Fe(OH)3 (s) → Fe2O3 (s) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 85
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 6 HNO3 (aq) → 2 Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 86
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) → Fe2(SO4)3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 87
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 6 HCl (aq) → 2 FeCl3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 88
FePO4•2H2O (s) → Fe+3 (aq) + PO4-3 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 
4 FeS2 (s pyrite) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 15 O2 (g) → 2 Fe2(SO4)3 (aq) + 2 H2SO4 (aq) 89
10 FeSO4 (aq) + 2 KMnO4 (aq) + 8 H2SO4 (aq) → 5 Fe2(SO4)3 (aq) + 2 MnSO4 (aq) + 1 K2SO4 (aq) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 90
6 FeSO4 (aq) + 1 K2Cr2O7 (aq) + 7 H2SO4 (aq) → 3 Fe2(SO4)3 (aq) + Cr2(SO4)3 (aq) + 7 H2O (ℓ) + 1 K2SO4 (aq) 90
2 H2 (g) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 H2O (ℓ) 91
2 H2 (g) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 H2O (g) 92
H2CO3 (aq) → CO2 (g) + H2O (ℓ) 
H2NCH2COOH (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → H2NCH2COONa (aq) + H2O (ℓ) 93
2 H2O (ℓ) → 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) 94
2 H2O2 (aq) → 2 H2O (ℓ) + O2 (g) 95
2 H2O2 (aq) → 2 H2O (ℓ) + O2 (g) 96
5 H2O2 (aq) + 2 KMnO4 (aq) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) → 5 O2 (g) + 2 MnSO4 (aq) + 1 K2SO4 (aq) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 97
2 H2S (g) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 SO2 (g) 98
2 H2S (g) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 H2O (g) + 2 SO2 (g) 99
16 H2S (g) + 8 SO2 (g) → 16 H2O (g) + 3 S8 (s) 100
H2SO3 (aq) → SO2 (g) + H2O (ℓ) 
H2SO4 (aq) + 2 KOH (aq) → 2 H2O (ℓ) + K2SO4 (aq) 
H2SO4 (aq) + 2 NaHCO3 (aq) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 CO2 (g) 101
H2SO4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) → 2 H2O (ℓ) + Na2SO4 (aq) 102
H3PO4 (aq) + 3 NaOH (aq) → 3 H2O (ℓ) + Na3PO4 (aq) 
H3PO4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) → Na2HPO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 103
2 HBr (aq) + 1 Ba(OH)2 (aq) → 2 H2O (ℓ) + BaBr2 (aq) 104
HCl (aq) + 1 KOH (aq) → KCl (aq) + H2O (ℓ) 
2 HCl (aq) + 1 MgCO3 (s) → MgCl2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HCl (aq) + 1 K2CO3 (s) → 2 KCl (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HCl (aq) + 1 Na2CO3 (s) → 2 NaCl (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HCl (aq) + 1 PbCO3 (s) → PbCl2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HCl (aq) + 1 Na2SO3 (s) → 2 NaCl (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 SO2 (g) 
2 HCl (aq) + 1 FeCO3 (s) → FeCl2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
HCl (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → H2O (ℓ) + NaCl (aq) 105
4 HCl (aq) + 1 MnO2 (s) → 2 H2O (ℓ) + MnCl2 (aq) + 1 Cl2 (g) 106
2 HCl (aq) + 1 Ca(OH)2 (aq) → CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) 107
2 HCl (aq) + 1 CaCO3 (s) → CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 108
5 HClO2 (aq) → 4 ClO2 (g) + HCl (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 109
2 HClO4 (aq) + 1 Ca(OH)2 (aq) → Ca(ClO4)2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 110
HCN (aq) + 1 KOH (aq) → KCN (aq) + H2O (ℓ) 111
HCOOH (ℓ) → H2O (ℓ) + CO (g) 112
HF (aq) + 1 KOH (aq) → KF (aq) + H2O (ℓ) 113
HNO2 (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → H2O (ℓ) + NaNO2 (aq) 114
HNO3 (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) 115
2 HNO3 (aq) + 1 Na2CO3 (aq) → 2 NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 116
4 KO2 (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 4 KOH (s) + 3 O2 (g) 117
4 KO2 (s) + 6 H2O (ℓ) → 4 KOH (s) + O2 (g) + 4 H2O2 (aq) 118
2 Li (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 2 LiOH (aq) + 2 H2 (g) 119
2 LiOH (s) + 1 CO2 (g) → Li2CO3 (s) + H2O (ℓ) 120
Mg(OH)2 (s) + 2 HCl (aq) → MgCl2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 121
MgC2O4•2H2O (s) → Mg+2 (aq) + C2O4-2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 
MgCO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → MgSO4 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 122
MgCO3 (s) + 2 HCl (aq) → MgCl2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 123
MgCO3•3H2O (s) → Mg+2 (aq) + CO3-2 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 
MgCO3•5H2O (s) → Mg+2 (aq) + CO3-2 (aq) + 5 H2O (ℓ) 
2 Mn+2 (aq) + 5 BiO3-1 (aq) + 14 H+1 (aq) → 2 MnO4-1 (aq) + 5 Bi+3 (aq) + 7 H2O (ℓ) 124
MnC2O4•2H2O (s) → Mn+2 (aq) + C2O4-2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 
2 N2H4 (ℓ) + 1 N2O4 (ℓ) → 3 N2 (g) + 4 H2O (g) 125
N2H4 (ℓ) + 1 O2 (g) → N2 (g) + H2O (ℓ) 126
2 Na (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 2 NaOH (aq) + H2 (g) 127
Na2CO3 (aq) + 2 HCl (aq) → 2 NaCl (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 128
2 Na2O2 (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 4 NaOH (aq) + O2 (g) 129
Na2SO3 (aq) + 2 HCl (aq) → 2 NaCl (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 SO2 (g) 130
2 NaCl (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) + 2 NaOH (aq) 131
3 NaHCO3 (aq) + 1 C6H8O7 (aq) → 3 CO2 (g) + 3 H2O (ℓ) + 1 NaC6H5O7 (aq) 132
NaHCO3 (s) + 1 HCl (aq) → NaCl (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 133
2 NaHCO3 (s) → Na2CO3 (s) + H2O (g) + 1 CO2 (g) 134
2 NaOH (s) + 1 CO2 (g) → Na2CO3 (s) + H2O (ℓ) 135
3 NaOH (aq) + 1 H3PO4 (aq) → Na3PO4 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 136
NaOH (aq) + 1 NH4Br (aq) → NaBr (aq) + NH3 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 137
4 NH3 (g) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 N2 (g) + 6 H2O (g) 138
4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2 (g) → 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (g) 139
NH3 (g) + 1 CO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ)1 NaCl (aq) → NaHCO3 (s) + NH4Cl (aq) 140
2 NH3 (g) + 3 O2 (g) + 2 CH4 (g) → 2 HCN (g) + 6 H2O (g) 141
4 NH3 (aq) + 5 O2 (aq) → 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (ℓ) 142
NH4Cl (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → NH3 (g) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 NaCl (aq) 143
NH4NO2 (s) → 2 H2O (g) + N2 (g) 144
NH4OH (aq) → NH3 (g) + H2O (ℓ) 
NiCO3 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) → Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 145
NiO (s) + 2 H+1 (aq) → Ni+2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) 146
NiS (s) + 4 HNO3 (aq) → Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + S (s) + 2 NO2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 147
2 NO (g) + 2 CH4 (g) → 2 HCN (g) + 2 H2O (g) + 1 H2 (g) 148
3 NO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → 2 HNO3 (aq) + NO (g) 149
P4O10 (s) + 6 H2O (ℓ) → 4 H3PO4 (aq) 150
Pb (s) + 1 PbO2 (s) + 2 H2SO4 (aq) → 2 PbSO4 (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 151
PbCO3 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) → Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 152
PCl5 (ℓ) + 4 H2O (ℓ) → H3PO4 (aq) + 5 HCl (g) 153
S-2 (aq) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → HS-1 (aq) + OH-1 (aq) 154
Sb4O6 (s) + 12 NaOH (aq) → 4 Na3SbO3 (aq) + 6 H2O (ℓ) 155
Sc2O3 (s) + 3 H2O (ℓ) → 2 Sc(OH)3 (s) 156
SF4 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → SO2 (g) + 4 HF (ℓ) 157
3 Sn (s) + 16 HNO3 (aq) → 3 Sn(NO3)4 (aq) + 4 NO (g) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 158
SO2 (g) + 2 NaOH (s) → Na2SO3 (s) + H2O (ℓ) 159
SO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → H2SO3 (aq) 160
SO3 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → H2SO4 (aq) 161
Sr(IO3)2•6H2O (s) → Sr+2 (aq) + 2 IO3-1 (aq) + 6 H2O (ℓ) 
Sr(IO3)2•H2O (s) → Sr+2 (aq) + 2 IO3-1 (aq) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 
SrH2 (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → Sr(OH)2 (s) + 2 H2 (g) 162
UO2 (s) + 4 HF (aq) → UF4 (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 163
Zn(IO3)2•2H2O (s) → Zn+2 (aq) + 2 IO3-1 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 
ZnC2O4•2H2O (s) → Zn+2 (aq) + C2O4-2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 
ZnCO3•H2O (s) → Zn+2 (aq) + CO3-2 (aq) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 
2 ZnS (s sphalerite) + 2 H2SO4 (aq) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 ZnSO4 (aq) + 2 S (s rhombic) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 164
ZnSeO3•H2O (s) → Zn+2 (aq) + SeO3-2 (aq) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 
Cl2 (g) + 2 NaOH (aq) → NaCl (aq) + NaClO (aq) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 165
2 H2S (g) + 1 SO2 (g) → 3 S (s rhombic) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 165
CO2 (g) + 1 H2 (g) → CH4 (g methane) + H2O (ℓ) 165
CH3COOH (ℓ acetic acid) + 1 C2H5OH (ℓ ethanol) → CH3COOCH2CH3 (ℓ ethyl acetate) + H2O (ℓ) 
3 (NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2 Al(OH)3 (s) → Al2(SO4)3 (aq) + 6 H2O (ℓ) + 6 NH3 (g) 
(NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2 KOH (s) → K2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
(NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (s) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
(NH4)3PO4 (aq) + 3 KOH (s) → K3PO4 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) + 3 NH3 (g) 
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4Br (s) → CaBr2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4Cl (s) → CaCl2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4I (s) → CaI2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4NO3 (s) → Ca(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
H2C2O4 (aq) + 2 NaHCO3 (s) → Na2C2O4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 CO2 (g) 
H2SO4 (aq) + 2 NaHCO3 (s) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 CO2 (g) 
2 H3PO4 (aq) + 3 CaCO3 (s) → Ca3(PO4)2 (s) + 3 H2O (ℓ) + 3 CO2 (g) 
2 H3PO4 (aq) + 3 MgCO3 (s) → Mg3(PO4)2 (s) + 3 H2O (ℓ) + 3 CO2 (g) 
2 H3PO4 (aq) + 3 Na2SO3 (s) → 2 Na3PO4 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) + 3 SO2 (g) 
H3PO4 (aq) + 3 NaHCO3 (s) → Na3PO4 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) + 3 CO2 (g) 
2 HBr (aq) + 1 Ag2CO3 (s) → 2 AgBr (s) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HBr (aq) + 1 Ag2SO3 (s) → 2 AgBr (s) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 SO2 (g) 
2 HBr (aq) + 1 CdCO3 (s) → CdBr2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HBr (aq) + 1 K2CO3 (s) → 2 KBr (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HBr (aq) + 1 Na2CO3 (s) → 2 NaBr (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HCl (aq) + 1 CaCO3 (s) → CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HCN (aq) + 1 Ag2CO3 (s) → 2 AgCN (s) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HF (aq) + 1 CdCO3 (s) → CdF2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HF (aq) + 1 K2CO3 (s) → 2 KF (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HF (aq) + 1 Na2CO3 (s) → 2 NaF (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HI (aq) + 1 Ag2CO3 (s) → 2 AgI (s) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 
2 HI (aq) + 1 Ag2SO3 (s) → 2 AgI (s) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 SO2 (g) 
2 HI (aq) + 1 Na2SO3 (s) → 2 NaI (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 SO2 (g) 
2 KOH (aq) + 1 (NH4)2SO4 (s) → K2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Na2SO3 (aq) + 2 HCN (ℓ) → 2 NaCN (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 SO2 (g) 
2 NaOH (aq) + 1 (NH4)2SO4 (s) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
2 NH4Br (aq) + 1 Mg(OH)2 (s) → MgBr2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
2 K (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 2 KOH (aq) + H2 (g) 
2 La (s) + 6 H2O (g) → 2 La(OH)3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g) 
K2Cr2O7 (aq) + 6 FeCl2 (aq) + 14 HCl (aq) → 2 CrCl3 (aq) + 2 KCl (aq) + 6 FeCl3 (aq) + 7 H2O (ℓ) 
2 I2 (s) + 5 Cl2 (g) + 6 H2O (ℓ) → 2 HIO3 (aq) + 10 HCl (aq) 
14 HNO3 (aq) + 3 Cu2O (s) → 6 Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO (g) + 7 H2O (ℓ) 
4 Zn (s) + 10 HNO3 (aq) → 4 Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + NH4NO3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 
Al2(SO4)3 (aq) + KIO3 (aq) + 5 KI (aq)3 H2O (ℓ) → 2 Al(OH)3 (s) + 3 I2 (s) + 3 K2SO4 (aq) 
3 As (s alpha-gray) + 5 HNO3 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 3 H3AsO4 (aq) + 5 NO (g) 
HAsO2 + 2 Ce(SO4)2 + 2 H2O (ℓ) → H3AsO4 + Ce2(SO4)3 + H2SO4  
3 Cl2 (g) + 5 AgNO3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) → HClO3 (aq) + 5 HNO3 (aq) + 5 AgCl (s) 
5 Cr2(SO4)3 + 6 KMnO4 + 16 H2O → 10 H2CrO4 + 6 MnSO4 + 3 K2SO4 + 6 H2SO4  
14 HCl (aq) + 6 FeCl2 (aq) + K2Cr2O7 (aq) → 2 CrCl3 (aq) + 6 FeCl3 (aq) + 2 KCl (aq) + 7 H2O (ℓ) 
6 HCl (aq) + 4 KI (aq) + K2SeO3 (aq) → 2 I2 (s) + 6 KCl (aq) + Se (s hexagonal black) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 
6 HCl (aq) + 2 KMnO4 (aq) + 5 NaNO2 (aq) → 2 MnCl2 (aq) + 2 KCl (aq) + 5 NaNO3 (aq) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 
2 MoO3 + 3 H2SO4 + 3 Zn → Mo2O3 + 3 H2O + 3 ZnSO4  
6 HNO3 (aq) + 5 H2C2O4 (aq) + 2 KMnO4 (aq) → 10 CO2 (g) + 2 Mn(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 KNO3 (aq) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 
3 PbO2 + 2 Sb + 2 NaOH → 3 PbO + 2 NaSbO2 + H2O  
6 HNO3 (aq) + S (s rhombic) → 6 NO2 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 
4 MnSO4 + 10 NaBiO3 + 14 H2SO4 → 4 NaMnO4 + 5 Bi2(SO4)3 + 14 H2O + 3 Na2SO4  
2 KMnO4 (aq) + 3 KCN (aq) + H2O (ℓ) → 2 MnO2 (s) + 2 KOH (aq) + 3 KOCN (aq) 

For More Information

Wikipedia
Magazines:
Castelvecchi, Davide. Quantum Effects Make H2O Weird. Science News, August 16, 2008, p 7.
Cowen, Ron. Apollo Rocks Show Trace of Water. Science News, August 2, 2008, p 12.
Cowen, Ron. Mars Conceals Buried Icy Treasure. Science News, December 20, 2008, p 10.
Catling, David C. and Zahnle, Kevin J. The Planetary Air Leak. Scientific American, May 2009, p 36-43.
Cowen, Ron. Dawn of a Disk. Science News, September 1, 2007, p 133-134.
Cowen, Ron. The Damp Moon: Team Finds Water on Lunar Surface. Science News, October 24, 2009, p 10.
Perkins, Sid. Water Vapor Drop Dampens Temps. Science News, February 27, 2010, p 11.

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