NITRIC ACID - (7697-37-2)

Introduction

Name: nitric acid
* IUPAC
CAS Number: 7697-37-2
Chemical Formula: HNO3
Molar Mass: 63.01284 g
Mass Percent: H 1.5995 %; N 22.228 %; O 76.172 % 

Classification

• inorganic

Uses/Function

• "Manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Pharmaceutic acid (acidifier)." 1

• "13th most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 8.0 megatonnes." 2

• "13th most produced chemical in the United States - 14.20 billion pounds" 3

• "Nitric acid is used to make plastics including nylon and polyurethane. The largest use of nitric acid, however, is in the production of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3. Ammonium nitrate is used as a nitrogen fertilizer and in the manufactureof explosive mixtures (for example, a fuel oil-ammonium nitrate mixture is used as a mining explosive). Nitric acid is itself used to manufacture explosive compounds. Nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate), C3H5(NO3)3, is prepared from the reaction of nitric acid and glycerol, C3H5(OH)3, which can be made from fats or petroleum." 4

• "A strong corrosive acid prepared from sulfuric acid and a nitrate. It is used in the manufacture of explosives and dyes and as a coagulant in testing urine for albumin." 5

Physical Properties

Melting Point:*
-41.6°C 6 = 231.55 K = -42.88°F
Boiling Point:*
83°C 6 = 356.15 K = 181.4°F
Density (g/cm3):
1.55 at room temperature/pressure 6
* - 1 atm pressure

Solubility

Qualitative:
soluble:  • 6
reacts:  6

Bonding

Thermochemistry

ΔHf° (ℓ): -41.40 kcal/mol 7 = -173.22 kJ/mol
ΔHf° (g): -32.28 kcal/mol 7 = -135.06 kJ/mol
S° (ℓ): 37.19 cal/(mol•K) 8 = 155.60 J/(mol•K)
S° (g): 63.64 cal/(mol•K) 8 = 266.27 J/(mol•K)
ΔGf° (ℓ): -19.10 kcal/mol 9 = -79.91 kJ/mol
ΔGf° (g): -17.87 kcal/mol 9 = -74.77 kJ/mol

Reactions

2 AgNO3 (aq) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → Ag2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) 10
3 As2S3 (s) + 10 HNO3 (aq) + 4 H2O (ℓ) → 6 H3AsO4 (aq) + 10 NO (g) + 9 S (s) 11
C3H5(OH)3 + 3 HNO3 → C3H5(NO3)3 + 3 H2O  12
C6H6 (ℓ) + 1 HNO3 (ℓ) → C6H5NO2 (ℓ) + H2O (ℓ) 13
3 Cu (s) + 8 HNO3 (aq) → 3 Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO (g) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 14
Cu (s) + 4 HNO3 (aq) → Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 15
3 CuS (s) + 8 HNO3 (aq) → 8 NO (g) + 3 CuSO4 (aq) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 16
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 6 HNO3 (aq) → 2 Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 17
2 HNO3 (aq) + 1 Na2CO3 (aq) → 2 NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 18
KNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → KHSO4 (s) + HNO3 (g) 19
2 NaNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → Na2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (ℓ) 20
2 NaNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → Na2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (g) 21
Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 C4H8N2O2 (s) → Ni(C4H7N2O2)2 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) 22
NiCO3 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) → Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 23
NiS (s) + 4 HNO3 (aq) → Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + S (s) + 2 NO2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 24
3 NO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → 2 HNO3 (aq) + NO (g) 25
Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → PbSO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) 26
PbCO3 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) → Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 26
3 Sn (s) + 16 HNO3 (aq) → 3 Sn(NO3)4 (aq) + 4 NO (g) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 27
14 HNO3 (aq) + 3 Cu2O (s) → 6 Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO (g) + 7 H2O (ℓ) 
4 Zn (s) + 10 HNO3 (aq) → 4 Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + NH4NO3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 
3 As (s alpha-gray) + 5 HNO3 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 3 H3AsO4 (aq) + 5 NO (g) 
3 Cl2 (g) + 5 AgNO3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) → HClO3 (aq) + 5 HNO3 (aq) + 5 AgCl (s) 
6 HNO3 (aq) + 5 H2C2O4 (aq) + 2 KMnO4 (aq) → 10 CO2 (g) + 2 Mn(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 KNO3 (aq) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 
6 HNO3 (aq) + S (s rhombic) → 6 NO2 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 

For More Information

Sources

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