SULFURIC ACID - (7664-93-9)

Introduction

Name: sulfuric acid; oil of vitriol
* IUPAC
CAS Number: 7664-93-9
Chemical Formula: H2SO4
Molar Mass: 98.07848 g
Mass Percent: H 2.0553 %; S 32.693 %; O 65.251 % 

Classification

• inorganic

Uses/Function

• "In manuf[acturing] of fertilizers, explosives, dyestuffs, other acids, parchment paper, glue, purification of petroleum, pickling of metal." 1

• "Most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 40.5 megatonnes." 2

• "Most produced chemical in the United States - 77.49 billion pounds" 3

• "Sulfuric acid is used generally for its acid properties. For example, iron metal parts are cleaned of rust (approximately Fe2O3) by dipping them in a sulfuric acid bath. Any acid will react with metal oxides in a similar way. This process is referred to as pickling. Most sulfuric acid is used by the fertilizer industry to convert phosphate rock to a soluble phosphate." 4

• "pH adjustment [in chemical water analysis]" 5

Bonding

Thermochemistry

ΔHf° (ℓ): -194.55 kcal/mol 6 = -814.00 kJ/mol
ΔHf° (g): -177.0 kcal/mol 6 = -740.57 kJ/mol
S° (ℓ): 37.50 cal/(mol•K) 7 = 156.90 J/(mol•K)
S° (g): 69.1 cal/(mol•K) 7 = 289.11 J/(mol•K)
ΔGf° (ℓ): -164.93 kcal/mol 8 = -690.07 kJ/mol
ΔGf° (g): -156.8 kcal/mol 8 = -656.05 kJ/mol

Reactions

2 AgNO3 (aq) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → Ag2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) 9
2 Al (s) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) → Al2(SO4)3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g) 10
Ca3(PO4)2 (s beta) + 2 H2SO4 (aq) → 2 CaSO4 (s) + Ca(H2PO4)2 (aq) 11
Ca3(PO4)2 (s beta) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) → 2 H3PO4 (aq) + 3 CaSO4 (s) 12
Ca3(PO4)2 (s beta) + 3 H2SO4 (ℓ) → 2 H3PO4 (ℓ) + 3 CaSO4 (s) 13
CaF2 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → 2 HF (g) + CaSO4 (s) 14
Cu (s) + 2 H2SO4 (ℓ) → CuSO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 1 SO2 (g) 15
2 Fe (s alpha) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) → Fe2(SO4)3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g) 16
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) → Fe2(SO4)3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 17
4 FeS2 (s pyrite) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 15 O2 (g) → 2 Fe2(SO4)3 (aq) + 2 H2SO4 (aq) 18
10 FeSO4 (aq) + 2 KMnO4 (aq) + 8 H2SO4 (aq) → 5 Fe2(SO4)3 (aq) + 2 MnSO4 (aq) + 1 K2SO4 (aq) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 19
6 FeSO4 (aq) + 1 K2Cr2O7 (aq) + 7 H2SO4 (aq) → 3 Fe2(SO4)3 (aq) + Cr2(SO4)3 (aq) + 7 H2O (ℓ) + 1 K2SO4 (aq) 19
5 H2O2 (aq) + 2 KMnO4 (aq) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) → 5 O2 (g) + 2 MnSO4 (aq) + 1 K2SO4 (aq) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 19
H2S (aq) + 2 O2 (aq) → H2SO4 (aq) 20
KNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → KHSO4 (s) + HNO3 (g) 21
MgCO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → MgSO4 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 22
NaCl (s) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → NaHSO4 (s) + HCl (g) 23
2 NaNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → Na2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (ℓ) 24
2 NaNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → Na2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (g) 25
Pb (s) + 1 PbO2 (s) + 2 H2SO4 (aq) → 2 PbSO4 (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 26
Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → PbSO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) 27
SO3 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → H2SO4 (aq) 28
Zn (s) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → ZnSO4 (aq) + H2 (g) 
2 ZnS (s sphalerite) + 2 H2SO4 (aq) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 ZnSO4 (aq) + 2 S (s rhombic) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 29
Mg (s) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → MgSO4 (aq) + H2 (g) 
Mn (s alpha) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → MnSO4 (aq) + H2 (g) 
2 Dy (s) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) → Dy2(SO4)3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g) 
HAsO2 + 2 Ce(SO4)2 + 2 H2O (ℓ) → H3AsO4 + Ce2(SO4)3 + H2SO4  
5 Cr2(SO4)3 + 6 KMnO4 + 16 H2O → 10 H2CrO4 + 6 MnSO4 + 3 K2SO4 + 6 H2SO4  
2 MoO3 + 3 H2SO4 + 3 Zn → Mo2O3 + 3 H2O + 3 ZnSO4  
6 HNO3 (aq) + S (s rhombic) → 6 NO2 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 
4 MnSO4 + 10 NaBiO3 + 14 H2SO4 → 4 NaMnO4 + 5 Bi2(SO4)3 + 14 H2O + 3 Na2SO4  
K2Cr2O7 + 6 NaI + 7 H2SO4 → Cr2(SO4)3 + 3 I2 + 3 Na2SO4 + K2SO4  
Sandmeyer isonitrosoacetanilide isatin synthesis: 30


Safety Information

NFPA 704 Ratings:
Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury.
Flammability: 0 - Will not burn.
Reactivity: 2 - Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water.
Special Hazard: W - Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner.

For More Information

Sources

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(2) - Chem. Eng. News, 1995, 73 (26), p 39
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