AMMONIA - (7664-41-7)

Introduction

Name: ammonia; azane; hydrogen nitride
* IUPAC
CAS Number: 7664-41-7
Chemical Formula: NH3
Molar Mass: 17.03052 g
Mass Percent: N 82.244 %; H 17.755 % 

Classification

• inorganic

Uses/Function

• "Ammonia is a simple compound that figures prominently in the cycling of the element nitrogen in the biosphere, the part of the earht in which living things exist…when animal wastes decay, ammonia gas is released by bacterial processes. When ammonia is released in the soil, it is made into nitrates by soil bacteria…" 1

• "Ammonia is of crucial importance to modern farming as a nitrogen fertilizer." 2

• "is the source of nitrogen in many fertilizers." 3

• "6th most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 17.2 megatonnes." 4

• "4th most produced chemical in the United States - 32.32 billion pounds" 5

• "Chloramine disinfection [in chemical water analysis]" 6

Physical Properties

Melting Point:*
-77.73°C 7 = 195.42 K = -107.914°F
Boiling Point:*
-33.33°C 7 = 239.82 K = -27.994°F
Density (g/cm3):
0.000696 at room temperature/pressure 7
* - 1 atm pressure

Solubility

Qualitative:
very soluble:  7

Bonding

Double Bonds: 0
Triple Bonds: 0
Sigma Bonds: 3
Pi Bonds: 0
Total: 3
Carboxyl Groups: 0
Hydroxyl Groups: 0
Geometry: trigonal pyramidal
Hybridization: nitrogen is sp3
Bonding: polar covalent
Ionic Character: 25.45 %

Thermochemistry

ΔHf° (g): -11.02 kcal/mol 8 = -46.11 kJ/mol
S° (g): 45.97 cal/(mol•K) 9 = 192.34 J/(mol•K)
ΔGf° (g): -3.94 kcal/mol 10 = -16.48 kJ/mol

Reactions

(CN)2 (g cyanogen) + 4 H2O (ℓ) → H2C2O4 (aq) + 2 NH3 (g) 11
(NH4)2PtCl4 (s) + 2 NH3 (g) → 2 NH4Cl (aq) + Pt(NH3)2Cl2 (s) 12
(NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 13
Ba(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4Cl (s) → BaCl2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ba(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4Br (s) → BaBr2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ba(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4NO3 (s) → Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ba(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4F (s) → BaI2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ba(OH)2•8H2O (s) + 1 NH4SCN (s) → Ba(SCN)2 (s) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 NH3 (g) 14
2 C3H6 (g) + 2 NH3 (g) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 C3H3N (g) + 6 H2O (g) 15
CaO (s) + 2 NH4Cl (s) → 2 NH3 (g) + H2O (g) + 1 CaCl2 (s) 16
CH4 (g methane) + 1 NH3 (g) → HCN (g) + 3 H2 (g) 17
CuSO4 (aq) + 4 NH3 (aq) → Cu(NH3)4SO4 (aq) 18
H2SO4 (aq) + 1 NH3 (aq) → (NH4)2SO4 (aq) 19
HBr (aq) + 1 NH3 (aq) → NH4Br (aq) 20
N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) → 2 NH3 (g) 21
NaOH (aq) + 1 NH4Br (aq) → NaBr (aq) + NH3 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 22
4 NH3 (g) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 N2 (g) + 6 H2O (g) 23
4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2 (g) → 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (g) 24
2 NH3 (g) + 3 O2 (g) + 2 CH4 (g) → 2 HCN (g) + 6 H2O (g) 25
4 NH3 (aq) + 5 O2 (aq) → 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (ℓ) 26
NH4Cl (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → NH3 (g) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 NaCl (aq) 27
NH4Cl (s) → NH3 (g) + HCl (g) 28
NH4OH (aq) → NH3 (g) + H2O (ℓ) 
6 S2Cl2 (ℓ) + 16 NH3 (g) → S4N4 (s) + S8 (s) + 12 NH4Cl (s) 29
3 SiH4 (g) + 4 NH3 (g) → Si3N4 (s) + 12 H2 (g) 30
3 (NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2 Al(OH)3 (s) → Al2(SO4)3 (aq) + 6 H2O (ℓ) + 6 NH3 (g) 
(NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2 KOH (s) → K2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
(NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (s) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
(NH4)3PO4 (aq) + 3 KOH (s) → K3PO4 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) + 3 NH3 (g) 
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4Br (s) → CaBr2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4Cl (s) → CaCl2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4I (s) → CaI2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH4NO3 (s) → Ca(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
2 KOH (aq) + 1 (NH4)2SO4 (s) → K2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
2 NaOH (aq) + 1 (NH4)2SO4 (s) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
2 NH4Br (aq) + 1 Mg(OH)2 (s) → MgBr2 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 

Safety Information

NFPA 704 Ratings:
Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury.
Flammability: 1 - Must be heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93°C (200°F).
Reactivity: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water.

For More Information

Sources

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