CARBON MONOXIDE - (630-08-0)

Introduction

Name: carbon monoxide
* IUPAC
CAS Number: 630-08-0
Chemical Formula: CO
Molar Mass: 28.0101 g
Mass Percent: C 42.879 %; O 57.120 % 

Classification

• inorganic

Uses/Function

• "Used as a gaseous fuel, as a precursor for organic compounds, and as a reactant in the purification of nickel." 1

• "Carbon dioxide and water are not the only greenhouse gases. Methane, the CFCs, N2O, O3, and CO also absorb infrared radiation. Although they are present in the atmosphere at very low concentrations, they absorb infrared radiation relatively strongly and in regions of the spectrum not absorbed by CO2 and H2O." 2

• "As reducing agent in metallurgical operations especially the Mond process for the recovery of nickel; in organic synthesis especially in the Fischer-Tropsch processes for petroleum-type products and in the oxo reaction; in the manuf[acture] of metal carbonyls." 3

• "It poisons by combining with the hemoglobin present in the red blood cells. The normal function of hemoglobin is to combine with oxygen from the air that is breathed into the lungs and to release it later to the cells of the body. When carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin, it binds so strongly that it is not easily released; therefore, the hemoglobin is not available to combine with oxygen. As a result, the blood becomes less able to carry the oxygen and eventually body cells die.

Mixtures of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (called synthesis gas) yield a number of products depending on the temperature, pressure, and catalyst. Methanol (methyl alcohol), which is used as a solvent and in the manufacture of formaldehyde for plastics, is prepared using a zinc oxide-chromium(III) oxide catalyst. Acetic acid is prepared by bubbling carbon monoxide into liquid methanol a 215°C and 140 atm using a nickel(II) iodide catalyst.

At the present time, natural gas and petroleum are the principal sources of organic compounds, in addition to functioning as fuels. However, if these materials should become in short supply, carbon monoxide could replace them as a source of organic compounds and fuels. In that case, carbon monoxide would be prepared from the partial oxidation of some carbon-containing material (such as coal, wood, and organic waste). Hydrogen for synthesis gas mixtures could be obtained by reacting carbon monoxide with steam. Alternatively, synthesis gas can be obtained from the water-gas reaction, which was described previously.

It is also possible to convert synthesis gas mixtures to synthetic gasolines by using the appropriate catalyst and reaction conditions. These liquid fuels contain various hydrocarbons, such as octane, C8H18. A commercial plant for producing liquid fuels from coal is presently operating in South Africa." 4

Physical Properties

Melting Point:*
-205.02°C 5 = 68.13 K = -337.036°F
Boiling Point:*
-191.5°C 5 = 81.65 K = -312.7°F
Density (g/cm3):
0.001145 at room temperature/pressure 5
* - 1 atm pressure

Solubility

Qualitative:
slightly soluble:  5
soluble:  • 5

Bonding

Double Bonds: 0
Triple Bonds: 1
Sigma Bonds: 1
Pi Bonds: 2
Total: 3
Carboxyl Groups: 0
Hydroxyl Groups: 0
Geometry: linear
Hybridization: both carbon and oxygen are sp
Bonding: polar covalent
Ionic Character: 26.97 %

Thermochemistry

ΔHf° (s hexagonal): 0 kcal/mol 6 = 0.00 kJ/mol
ΔHf° (s face centered cubic): 0.11 kcal/mol 6 = 0.46 kJ/mol
ΔHf° (g): -26.42 kcal/mol 6 = -110.54 kJ/mol
S° (s hexagonal): 7.18 cal/(mol•K) 7 = 30.04 J/(mol•K)
S° (s face centered cubic): 7.34 cal/(mol•K) 7 = 30.71 J/(mol•K)
S° (g): 47.30 cal/(mol•K) 7 = 197.90 J/(mol•K)
ΔGf° (s hexagonal): 0 kcal/mol 8 = 0.00 kJ/mol
ΔGf° (s face centered cubic): 0.06 kcal/mol 8 = 0.25 kJ/mol
ΔGf° (g): -32.81 kcal/mol 8 = -137.28 kJ/mol

Reactions

2 Al (s) + 3 CoCl2 (aq) → 2 AlCl3 (aq) + 3 Co (s) 
Al2O3 + 3 C + 3 Cl2 → 2 AlCl3 + 3 CO  9
Bi2O3 (s) + 3 C (s graphite) → 3 Bi (s) + 3 CO (g) 10
C (s graphite) + 1 H2O (g) → CO (g) + H2 (g) 11
2 C (s graphite) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 CO (g) 12
C3H8 (g propane) + 3 H2O (g) → 3 CO (g) + 7 H2 (g) 13
2 Ca3(PO4)2 (s beta) + 6 SiO2 (s quartz) + 10 C (s graphite) → P4 (g) + 6 CaSiO3 (ℓ) + 10 CO (g) 14
CaO (s) + 3 C (s) → CaC2 (s) + CO (g) 15
CH3OH (ℓ methanol) → 2 H2 (g) + CO (g) 16
CH3OH (ℓ methanol) + 1 CO (g) → CH3COOH (ℓ) 17
2 CH3SH + 1 CO → CH3COSCH3 + H2S  18
2 CH4 (g methane) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 CO (g) + 4 H2 (g) 19
CH4 (g methane) + 1 H2O (g) → CO (g) + 3 H2 (g) 19
2 CO (g) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) 20
CO2 (g) + 1 C (s) → 2 CO (g) 21
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 3 CO (g) → 2 Fe (s alpha) + 3 CO2 (g) 22
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 3 C (s graphite) → 2 Fe (s alpha) + 3 CO (g) 23
FeO (s) + 1 CO (g) → Fe (s alpha) + CO2 (g) 24
FeO (s) + 1 C (s graphite) → Fe (s alpha) + CO (g) 24
H2O (g) + 1 CO (g) → H2 (g) + CO2 (g) 25
HCOOH (ℓ) → H2O (ℓ) + CO (g) 26
Na2SO4 (s) + 4 C (s graphite) → Na2S (s) + 4 CO (g) 27
SiO2 (s quartz) + 2 C (s graphite) → Si (ℓ) + 2 CO (g) 28
SiO2 (g) + 2 C (s graphite) + 2 Cl2 (g) → SiCl4 (g) + 2 CO (g) 29
2 TiO2 (s rutile) + 3 C (s graphite) + 4 Cl2 (g) → 2 TiCl4 (g) + CO2 (g) + 2 CO (g) 30
ZnO + 1 C → Zn + CO  31
ZnO (s) + 1 CO (g) → Zn (s) + CO2 (g) 32
2 Ca3(PO4)2 (s beta) + 6 SiO2 (s quartz) + 10 C (s graphite) → P4 (g) + 6 CaSiO3 (s wollastonite) + 10 CO (g) 33
13 C (s graphite) + 3 Cr2O3 (s) → 2 Cr3C2 (s) + 9 CO (g) 34

For More Information

Sources

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