SODIUM CARBONATE - (497-19-8)

Introduction

Name: sodium carbonate
* IUPAC
CAS Number: 497-19-8
Chemical Formula: Na2CO3
Molar Mass: 105.98844 g
Mass Percent: Na 43.381 %; C 11.332 %; O 45.286 % 

Classification

• inorganic

Uses/Function

• "...it acts like a hydroxide with many substances; hence it is an excellent cleansing substance. It is an important component of many cleaning powders...A large proportion of all the sodium carbonate made in this country [United States] goes into the manufacture of glass. Much sodium carbonate is used in softening hard waters, and some is used in petroleum refineries, to neutralize the sulfuric acid employed in an earlier stage of the refining...it is preferred for those uses in which the liberation of carbon dioxide is required, as in chemical fire extinguishers." 1

• "The compounds NaCl, NaHCO3, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH are used in food processing, road deicing, water treatment, glass manufacture, paper making, and the chemical industry." 2

• "11th most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 9.3 megatonnes." 3

• "11th most produced chemical in the United States - 17.78 billion pounds" 4

• "Softening [in chemical water analysis]" 5

• "Sodium carbonate is another commercially important compound. In 1995, in the United States 10.1×109 kg of Na2CO3 was produced, making it the 11th ranked industrial chemical. This compound has the common name soda ash, or washing soda, and it has been obtained, since prehistoric times, from naturally occurring deposits of Na2CO3•10H2O. Trona, Na2CO3•NaHCO3•2H2O, however, estimated at 6×1010 tons, was discovered in Wyoming, and virtually all Na2CO3 in the United States now comes from that source. About 40% of the soda ash is used in the manufacture of glass, but large amounts are also used in water treatment, in pulp and paper manufacture, and in cleaning materials." 6

Physical Properties

Melting Point:*
858.1°C 7 = 1131.25 K = 1576.58°F


* - 1 atm pressure

Bonding

Thermochemistry

ΔHf° (s): -270.3 kcal/mol 8 = -1,130.94 kJ/mol
S° (s): 32.5 cal/(mol•K) 9 = 135.98 J/(mol•K)
ΔGf° (s): -250.4 kcal/mol 10 = -1,047.67 kJ/mol

Reactions

For More Information

Sources

(1) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; pp 191-192.
(2) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 6.
(3) - Chem. Eng. News, 1995, 73 (26), p 39
(4) - Reisch, Mark S.; Top 50 Chemicals Production Turned Back Up in 1987. Chemical & Engineering News, April 11, 1988, pp 30-33.
(5) - Hammer, Mark J. Water and Wastewater Technology, 2nd ed.; Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1986; p 9.
(6) - Kotz and Treichel. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, 4th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 1999; p 1016.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2003; p 4-84.
(8) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(9) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(10) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(11) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 84.
(12) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 137.
(13) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 211.
(14) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 94.