SODIUM HYDROXIDE - (1310-73-2)

Introduction

Name: sodium hydroxide
* IUPAC
CAS Number: 1310-73-2
Chemical Formula: NaOH
Molar Mass: 39.99711 g
Mass Percent: Na 57.478 %; O 40.001 %; H 2.5200 % 

Classification

• inorganic

Uses/Function

• "Sodium hydroxide (or lye), NaOH, can be found in drain cleaners and oven cleaners." 1

• "Major uses of sodium hydroxide include the preparation of soaps and other detergents, paper making, purification of aluminum ore, and petroleum refining." 2

• "Sodium hydroxide is manufactured in enormous quantities for use in soap making. It is used in making sodium hypochlorite for bleaching solutions and in the manufacture of wood pulp for paper making. Petroleum is refined with its aid. One of the largest uses is in making rayon, a synthetic textile fiber." 3

• "used for the production of rayon, cleansers, textiles, soap, paper, and many polymers" 4

• "The compounds NaCl, NaHCO3, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH are used in food processing, road deicing, water treatment, glass manufacture, paper making, and the chemical industry." 5

• "8th most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 11.7 megatonnes." 6

• "7th most produced chemical in the United States - 23.03 billion pounds" 7

• "pH adjustment [in chemical water analysis]" 8

Bonding

Thermochemistry

ΔHf° (s): -101.99 kcal/mol 9 = -426.73 kJ/mol
ΔHf° (ℓ): -99.64 kcal/mol 9 = -416.89 kJ/mol
S° (s): 15.40 cal/(mol•K) 10 = 64.43 J/(mol•K)
S° (ℓ): 18.13 cal/(mol•K) 10 = 75.86 J/(mol•K)
ΔGf° (s): -90.60 kcal/mol 11 = -379.07 kJ/mol
ΔGf° (ℓ): -89.42 kcal/mol 11 = -374.13 kJ/mol

Reactions

(NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 12
2 Al (s) + 2 NaOH (aq) + 6 H2O (ℓ) → 2 Na[Al(OH)4] (aq) + 3 H2 (g) 13
Al2(SO4)3 (aq) + 6 NaOH (aq) → 2 Al(OH)3 (s) + 3 Na2SO4 (aq) 14
AlCl3 (s) + 3 NaOH (aq) → Al(OH)3 (s) + 3 NaCl (aq) 15
B2O3 (s) + 6 NaOH (aq) → 2 Na3BO3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 16
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 1 Na2CO3 (aq) → CaCO3 (s) + 2 NaOH (aq) 17
CH3COOH (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → CH3COONa (aq) + H2O (ℓ) 18
H2NCH2COOH (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → H2NCH2COONa (aq) + H2O (ℓ) 19
H2SO4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) → 2 H2O (ℓ) + Na2SO4 (aq) 20
H3PO4 (aq) + 3 NaOH (aq) → 3 H2O (ℓ) + Na3PO4 (aq) 
H3PO4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) → Na2HPO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 21
HCl (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → H2O (ℓ) + NaCl (aq) 22
HNO2 (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → H2O (ℓ) + NaNO2 (aq) 23
HNO3 (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) 24
2 Na (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 2 NaOH (aq) + H2 (g) 25
2 Na2O2 (s) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 4 NaOH (aq) + O2 (g) 26
2 NaCl (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) + 2 NaOH (aq) 27
2 NaOH (s) + 1 CO2 (g) → Na2CO3 (s) + H2O (ℓ) 27
3 NaOH (aq) + 1 H3PO4 (aq) → Na3PO4 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 28
NH4Cl (aq) + 1 NaOH (aq) → NH3 (g) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 NaCl (aq) 29
Sb4O6 (s) + 12 NaOH (aq) → 4 Na3SbO3 (aq) + 6 H2O (ℓ) 30
SO2 (g) + 2 NaOH (s) → Na2SO3 (s) + H2O (ℓ) 31
Cl2 (g) + 2 NaOH (aq) → NaCl (aq) + NaClO (aq) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 32
(NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (s) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
2 NaOH (aq) + 1 (NH4)2SO4 (s) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) + 2 NH3 (g) 
3 PbO2 + 2 Sb + 2 NaOH → 3 PbO + 2 NaSbO2 + H2O  
Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) → Pb(OH)2 (s) + 2 NaNO3 (aq) 

Safety Information

NFPA 704 Ratings:
Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury.
Flammability: 0 - Will not burn.
Reactivity: 1 - Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures.
Special Hazard: ALK -

For More Information

Sources

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