BUTANE - (106-97-8)

Introduction

Name: butane
* IUPAC
CAS Number: 106-97-8
Chemical Formula: C4H10 or CH3(CH2)2CH3
Molar Mass: 58.1222 g
State of Matter: colorless gas
Mass Percent: C 82.658 %; H 17.341 % 
Isomers:  2-methylpropane

Classification

• organic • alkane

Uses/Function

• "As producer gas; raw material for motor fuels, in the manuf[acture] of synthetic rubbers." 1

Physical Properties

Melting Point:*
-138.2°C 2 = 134.95 K = -216.76°F
Boiling Point:*
-0.6°C 3 = 272.55 K = 30.92°F
-0.5°C 2 = 272.65 K = 31.1°F
Density (g/cm3):
0.573 at 25°C 2
* - 1 atm pressure

Solubility

Qualitative:
insoluble:  3
soluble:  • 3
very soluble:  3

Bonding

Double Bonds: 0
Triple Bonds: 0
Sigma Bonds: 13
Pi Bonds: 0
Total: 13
Carboxyl Groups: 0
Hydroxyl Groups: 0
Hybridization: all carbons are sp3
Bonding: polar covalent
Ionic Character: 10.61 %

Thermochemistry

ΔHf° (ℓ): -35.29 kcal/mol 4 = -147.65 kJ/mol
ΔHf° (g): -30.15 kcal/mol 4 = -126.15 kJ/mol
S° (ℓ): 55.2 cal/(mol•K) 5 = 230.96 J/(mol•K)
S° (g): 74.12 cal/(mol•K) 5 = 310.12 J/(mol•K)
ΔGf° (ℓ): -3.60 kcal/mol 6 = -15.06 kJ/mol
ΔGf° (g): -4.10 kcal/mol 6 = -17.15 kJ/mol
The heat of combustion is the amount of heat released when one mole of a substance undergoes combustion according to the general reaction equation:
CxHyOz + 0.25(4x+y-2z) O2 (g) → x CO2 (g) + 0.5y H2O (ℓ)

ΔHcomb° (ℓ): -682.485 kcal = -2855.53664 kJ
ΔHcomb° (g): -687.625 kcal = -2877.0424 kJ

Reactions

Safety Information

NFPA 704 Ratings:
Health: 1 - Exposure would cause irritation with only minor residual injury.
Flammability: 4 - Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily. Includes pyrophoric substances. Flash point below 23°C (73°F).
Reactivity: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water.

For More Information

Sources

(1) - The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 13th ed.; Budavari, S.; O'Neil, M.J.; Smith, A.; Heckelman, P. E.; Kinneary, J. F., Eds.; Merck & Co.: Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2001; entry 1505.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 3-90.
(3) - Estok, George K. Organic Chemistry: A Short Text; W.B. Saunders: Philadelphia, 1959; p 29.
(4) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:68.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:68.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:68.
(7) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 77, 225.